Thursday’s ad is from Pabst, from 1901. Many brewers made other related products besides beer, notably malt extract, to be used primarily in cooking as an ingredient in breads and desserts and even as a tonic. According to Briess, which still offers it today. “What is Malt Extract? Malt can be further processed to produce liquid or dried sweeteners called Malt Extracts.” They were essentially “the original starch- or grain-based sweetener.” Many brewers survived prohibition making malt extract, both for legal uses and for homebrewing, but Pabst was making and advertising decades before. In this ad, a man is working construction on a tall skyscraper, pulling up a steel girder all by himself. Though it’s unclear which one he is, but there are apparently two kinds of people, nervous or nerveless. And Pabst Malt Extract will help no matter which. “It steadies unsteady nerves — it makes steady nerves.”
Wednesday’s ad is from Pabst, from 1901. Many brewers made other related products besides beer, notably malt extract, to be used primarily in cooking as an ingredient in breads and desserts and even as a tonic. According to Briess, which still offers it today. “What is Malt Extract? Malt can be further processed to produce liquid or dried sweeteners called Malt Extracts.” They were essentially “the original starch- or grain-based sweetener.” Many brewers survived prohibition making malt extract, both for legal uses and for homebrewing, but Pabst was making and advertising decades before. In this ad, which uses possibly the weirdest words to say you had a bad day, they start with “After the day’s business foretells nervous prostration.” Luckily, there is a cure. You probably already know what it is: Pabst Malt Extract.
Today is the birthday of Emile Anton Hubert Seipgens (August 16, 1837-June 25, 1896). Seipgens was born in Roermond, the Netherlands. He was the son of a brewer, and after school and some failed jobs, joined his father at the brewery in 1856. By 1859, he was running the brewery along with his brother. But apparently he wasn’t happy there, and in 1874 decided to pursue his dream of becoming a writer. Throughout his life, he wrote poetry, novels, plays and much more.
Here’s a translated biography of his literary career, from Literary Zutphen:
Emile (Anton Hubert) Seipgens, born August 16, 1837 in Roermond, from 1876 until 1883 teacher of German at the Rijks HBS in Zutphen. He founded a literary reading companion for his disciples and was a member of the “Circle of scientific maintenance. He lived Nieuwstad A128-2. Seipgens was an outspoken Limburg author. His work – theater, novels and novellas village – is invariably located in Limburg, and sometimes – his songs – even written in Limburg dialect. Some of his best known and most read titles he wrote in his Zutphense period: The chaplain Bardelo (1880), from Limburg. Novellas and Sketches (1881). In this period made Seipgens, who was first trained to be a priest, then was brewer, then teacher, to eventually become a writer, definitively separated from the Catholic Church. He started on the assembly line to write stories, which he published in magazines such as The Guide , Netherlands and Elsevier . One of those stories, Rooien Hannes , had worked to folk drama and staged by the Netherlands Tooneel great success. Later titles are: In and around the small town (1887), along Maas and Trench (1890), The Killer Star (1892), Jean, ‘t Stumpke, Hawioe-Ho (1893), The Zûpers of Bliënbèèk (1894) and A wild Rosary (1894). In 1892 Seipgens secretary of the Society of Dutch Literature in Leiden, and in that place he died 1896. Posthumously published yet his novel on June 25, Daniel (1897) and the beam A Immortellenkrans (1897). Seipgens, which is one of the earliest naturalists of the Netherlands became completely into oblivion, until the late 70s of the last century actually was a small revival. Which among other things led to reprint the novel The chaplain Bardelo and stories in and around the small town , and to the publication of his biography, written by Peter Nissen: Emile Anton Hubert Seipgens (1837-1896). Of brewer’s son to literary (1987), and the placing of a memorial stone at Seipgens birthplace. But this revival was short-lived. If Emile Seipgens remembered voortleeft, it will have to be on the legend of the rovershoofdman Johann Bückler based ‘operabouffe’ Schinderhannes (1864), which to this day in Roermond is staged!
And here’s another account from “The Humour of Holland,” published in 1894.
Today is the birthday of Johan Gustav Christoffer Thorsager Kjeldahl (August 16, 1849-July 18, 1900) He was a Danish chemist who developed a method for determining the amount of nitrogen in certain organic compounds using a laboratory technique which was named the Kjeldahl method after him.
Kjeldahl worked in Copenhagen at the Carlsberg Laboratory, associated with Carlsberg Brewery, where he was head of the Chemistry department from 1876 to 1900.
He was given the job to determine the amount of protein in the grain used in the malt industry. Less protein meant more beer. Kjeldahl found the answer was in developing a technique to determine nitrogen with accuracy but existing methods in analytical chemistry related to proteins and biochemistry at the time were far from accurate.
His discovery became known as the Kjeldahl Method
The method consists of heating a substance with sulphuric acid, which decomposes the organic substance by oxidation to liberate the reduced nitrogen as ammonium sulphate. In this step potassium sulphate is added to increase the boiling point of the medium (from 337 °C to 373 °C) . Chemical decomposition of the sample is complete when the initially very dark-coloured medium has become clear and colourless.
The solution is then distilled with a small quantity of sodium hydroxide, which converts the ammonium salt to ammonia. The amount of ammonia present, and thus the amount of nitrogen present in the sample, is determined by back titration. The end of the condenser is dipped into a solution of boric acid. The ammonia reacts with the acid and the remainder of the acid is then titrated with a sodium carbonate solution by way of a methyl orange pH indicator.
In practice, this analysis is largely automated; specific catalysts accelerate the decomposition. Originally, the catalyst of choice was mercuric oxide. However, while it was very effective, health concerns resulted in it being replaced by cupric sulfate. Cupric sulfate was not as efficient as mercuric oxide, and yielded lower protein results. It was soon supplemented with titanium dioxide, which is currently the approved catalyst in all of the methods of analysis for protein in the Official Methods and Recommended Practices of AOAC International.
And Velp Scientifica also has an explanation of his method, which is still in use today.
Kjeldahl (center) in his laboratory.
Tuesday’s ad is from Pabst, from 1901. Many brewers made other related products besides beer, notably malt extract, to be used primarily in cooking as an ingredient in breads and desserts and even as a tonic. According to Briess, which still offers it today. “What is Malt Extract? Malt can be further processed to produce liquid or dried sweeteners called Malt Extracts.” They were essentially “the original starch- or grain-based sweetener.” Many brewers survived prohibition making malt extract, both for legal uses and for homebrewing, but Pabst was making and advertising decades before. In this ad, which begins with a great premise, they state. “A lovely woman is the fairest flower in the garden of humanity.” Then they suggest that “every woman can be lovely.” All she needs is to drink a glass of Pabst Malt Extract three times a day.
Since 1940, the tiny Principality of Liechtenstein has been holding a celebration which they call Staatsfeiertag Liechtenstein, or their “National Day,” though it’s sometimes referred to as “State Day Liechtenstein.” At around 62 square miles, Liechtenstein is the fourth-smallest in Europe, and has an estimated population of only 37,000. That’s a little been less than nearby Martinez, California.
Here’s the official description, from Liechtenstein’s website:
On 15 August Vaduz plays host to a huge celebration attended by thousands of Liechtenstein citizens and guests from many countries. The National Day begins with the State Act held on the lawn in front of Vaduz Castle, including speeches by the Prince and the president of the parliament. The people are then invited to a reception with drinks in the gardens of the castle. National Day is the only day of the year when the gardens are open to the general public. The Princely Family is also present at this reception and enjoys chatting with those present.
In the afternoon there is a large fair in the centre of Vaduz that continues until the early hours of the morning. The festivities come to a close in the evening with a large firework display above Vaduz Castle that is famous throughout the region and draws many guests to Vaduz.
There were two main reasons for establishing the National Day on 15 August. The first reason was that it was already a bank holiday (Feast of the Assumption). The second reason was that the Reigning Prince at the time, Prince Franz Josef II, celebrated his birthday on 16 August. Therefore, it was decided to celebrate the National Day on 15 August as a combination of the Feast of the Assumption and the Reigning Prince’s birthday. Following the death of Prince Franz Josef II in 1989, National Day continued to be celebrated on 15 August. It was established as the official national day by a law passed in 1990.
Over the course of the years there have been different variations of the official celebration held on National Day. Since 1990 the State Act has taken place on the lawn in front of Vaduz Castle, the location where in 1939 the people paid homage to Prince Franz Josef II under the threat of National Socialism. It was here that Prince Hans-Adam II also received an homage from the people in 1990.
The day starts at the prince’s residence, Vaduz Castle.
But by all accounts, there’s a lot of beer throughout the day, all the way through the fireworks displays that caps off the day’s events. The fair that begins in the afternoon is equal parts street fair and beer festival.
It sounds like a lot of fun, I’d certainly love to go someday. Here’s an account of the day from the perspective of an expat Englishman living there in 2009:
Missed out on an invitation to a Buckingham Palace garden party this year? Never mind. In Liechtenstein you can invite yourself to the annual garden party at the princely Castle in Vaduz and mix with royalty, diplomats and hoi polloi as well as one or two curious foreigners.
You might not get daintily cut sandwiches or tea but there is plenty of beer on tap, fruit juice in packs and filled bread rolls. There’s probably more pushing and shoving, too, as the garden is only small yet the whole population of 35,356 is invited.
This year’s Liechtenstein’s National Day celebrations started as usual by the castle gates at 9.30 on the dot on the 15 August, the date chosen in 1940, coinciding with the Feast of the Assumption, already a public holiday in this Catholic state of only 160 sq kms, and close enough to the birthday (the following day) of the then Ruling Prince, Franz Josef II.
A local band in blue uniform (there are no armed forces in Liechtenstein) struck up and proceeded to the Castle Meadow a few metres away. Various members of the ruling family followed: reigning Prince Hans Adam ll, who is 64, and his wife, Princess Marie von und zu Liechtenstein, along with their eldest son, Hereditary Prince Alois, 41, the prince regent since 2004, and his wife Princess Sophie.
A delegation of diplomats and honorary guests also joined the procession, having been whisked up the steep mountainside in coaches, unlike the puffing locals. And finally, at the rear, the rotund, fully robed Bishop of Vaduz with ornamental crozier and the representative of the Apostolic Nuncio.
The ceremony began with a Catholic Mass and Holy Communion. While the brass band and the Catholic hierarchy enjoyed the shelter of marquees, the poor princely family had to sit on hard benches with no protection from the fierce sun on one of the hottest days of the year. It was too hot for some.
First, one of the young princes felt ill and had to be escorted, in his smart new blue blazer and beige trousers, back to the castle by a lady in elaborate local costume. Then his sister felt faint and was taken by her mother to a waiting ambulance. Liechtenstein’s boy scouts sheltered the bishop and his attendants with white umbrellas as they ventured into the sun to give communion. Once this was over, the reigning princess summoned the scouts to shelter her and the ladies in her entourage. She even sipped from a plastic bottle of mineral water – now the Queen would never do that!
The hereditary prince spoke, inevitably, of the world economic crisis but added that, compared with many countries, Liechtenstein was in an enviable position. His uncle, Prince Nikolaus, the brother of the reigning prince and ambassador to the European Union, looked on in the heat. It was he who had led the difficult negotiations with the United Kingdom only days before, culminating in an agreement to ensure greater exchange of information on tax matters. It was with great relief for its bankers that Liechtenstein was removed from the OECD’s “grey list” of uncooperative states earlier this year.
The head of the 25-seat parliament, Arthur Brunhart, also spoke, reminding everyone that crises were also times of opportunity. By this time, two hours into the ceremony, some were already cheekily making their way to the garden for the party. The band struck up the Liechtenstein national anthem to the same tune as God Save the Queen as loyal citizens raised their right hands, pledging loyalty to the principality. For another year the ceremonial part of the celebrations was over but festivities continued in a beer festival atmosphere in the main street, rounded off by a spectacular fireworks display with free buses to take everyone home afterwards.
And this is from last year’s celebration, entitled Attending National Day in Liechtenstein: Quite An Experience!
Today is the birthday of Christian Benjamin Feigenspan (August 15, 1844-April 10, 1899). He was born in Thuringia, Germany but moved his family to New Jersey and founded the C. Feigenspan Brewing Company of Newark in 1875, though at least one source says 1868. When he died in 1899, his son Christian William Feigenspan took over management of the brewery, which remained in business through prohibition, but was bought by Ballantine in 1943.
There’s surprisingly little biographical information about Christian Benjamin Feigenspan, but here’s some history of his brewery:
In 1875 the Christian Feigenspan Brewing Company was founded at 49 Charlton St., at the former Laible brewery where he had previously been a superintendent. He would also marry Rachel Laible.
In 1878, he reportedly built a brewery on Belmont Street, and as late as 1886 a facility at 54 Belmont would be listed as the “Feigenspan Bottling Establishment”.
In 1880, Christian Feiganspan took over the Charles Kolb lager beer brewery (founded 1866) on Freeman Street. (Altho’, an 1873 map of Newark shows the property owned by a “Lenz Geyer Company”. There was a “Geyer” who was another Newark brewer who owned an “Enterprise Brewery” on Orange St.)
An 1884 fire would, reportedly, burn the brewery to the ground for a loss of $300,000.
By 1909, the firm would be advertising that “…Feigenspan Breweries are the largest producers of Ale in the United States!” (click on barrel above for text of ad) in an apparent dig at their much larger next door neighbor, P. Ballantine & Sons. Ballantine’s Lager Beer sales having by then accounted for 3/4 of their total production.
Possibly because of WWI era restrictions on the allowable alcohol level of beer (set at a mere 2.75%), Feigenspan entered into Prohibition with 4,000 barrels of aging ale in its cellar. In 1927, the ale would make the news as they tried to sell it. One story in July had it going to Heinz in Pittsburgh to be made into malt vinegar, but follow up articles say that in early November the ale was simply dumped into the sewer “…and thence into the Passaic River”.
Sadly, it would not be the first beer dumped by Feigenspan, which had one of the first four licenses to brew “medicinal beer” at the start of Prohibition. “Medicinal beer” was soon outlawed by the “Anti-Beer” law, and the brewery had to dump 600 cases of “real beer” (4.5% alcohol) in March of 1922.
Monday’s ad is from Pabst, from 1900. Many brewers made other related products besides beer, notably malt extract, to be used primarily in cooking as an ingredient in breads and desserts and even as a tonic. According to Briess, which still offers it today. “What is Malt Extract? Malt can be further processed to produce liquid or dried sweeteners called Malt Extracts.” They were essentially “the original starch- or grain-based sweetener.” Many brewers survived prohibition making malt extract, both for legal uses and for homebrewing, but Pabst was making and advertising decades before. In this ad, a store window is shown filled with Pabst Malt Extract. It appears the store put their entire stock in the window, because according to the text of the ad, he’s reaching in so he can sell one of the bottles. I know when I worked retail, we always held back stock for the shelves (racks in our case) so that people could come in and pick one up to buy it. Keeping product out of potential customer’s hands seems pretty stupid.
Sunday’s ad is from Pabst, from 1898. Many brewers made other related products besides beer, notably malt extract, to be used primarily in cooking as an ingredient in breads and desserts and even as a tonic. According to Briess, which still offers it today. “What is Malt Extract? Malt can be further processed to produce liquid or dried sweeteners called Malt Extracts.” They were essentially “the original starch- or grain-based sweetener.” Many brewers survived prohibition making malt extract, both for legal uses and for homebrewing, but Pabst was making and advertising decades before. In this ad, with another beautiful illustration of a gothic cathedral. There’s a woman in the foreground presumably having trouble sleeping who’s spinning wool as opposed to just counting sheep. But she should have simply drunk some Pabst Malt Extract, which would transport her straight to slumberland.
Today is the birthday of William Jacob Lemp, Jr. (August 13, 1867-December 29, 1922). He was born in St. Louis, Missouri, and was the son of William J. Lemp and the grandson of Adam Lemp, who founded the Lemp Brewery in 1840. When his grandfather died in 1862, his father inherited the brewery, and it was renamed the William J. Lemp Brewing Co. When he committed suicide, most likely from depression after his favorite son Frederick died at age 28. His other son, William J. Lemp Jr., ran the brewery thereafter, until it was closed by prohibition in 1920.
This account of Lemp Jr.’s time running the brewery is from the Wikipedia page about the Lemp Mansion:
On November 7, 1904, William J. “Billy” Lemp, Jr., took over the brewing company as president. Billy had married Lillian Handlan five years earlier, and they moved to a new home at 3343 South 13th Street.
Lillian Handlan Lemp was, allegedly, nicknamed the “Lavender Lady” for her lavender-colored wardrobe and carriages. She filed for divorce in 1908, charging Billy with desertion, cruel treatment and other indignities. Their divorce proceedings lasted 11 days and ended in Lillian being granted her divorce and custody of William III – their only child – with Billy given only visitation rights.
After the trial, Billy built “Alswel” – his country home overlooking the Meramec River. The home was located in what is now the western edge of Kirkwood. By 1914, he lived at Alswel full-time.
The Lemp Brewery suffered in the 1910s when Prohibition began. The brewery was shut down and the Falstaff trademark was sold to Lemp’s friend, “Papa Joe” Griesedieck. The brewery itself was eventually sold at auction to International Shoe Company for $588,500. On December 29, 1922, Billy Lemp shot himself in his office — a room that today is the front left dining room.
This history of the Lemp Family is from Monstrosity, a paranormal convention offering stays in the supposedly haunted Lemp Mansion:
America’s First Lager Beer Brewers
When John Adam Lemp arrived in St. Louis from Eschwege, Germany in 1838, he seemed no different from the thousands of other immigrants who poured into the Gateway to the West during the first half of the 19th century. Lemp originally sought his fortune as a grocer. But his store was unique for its ability to supply an item sold by none of his competitors – lager beer. Lemp had learned the art of brewing the effervescent beverage under the tutelage of his father in Eschwege, and the natural cave system under St. Louis provided the perfect temperature for aging beer. Lemp soon realized that the future of lager beer in America was as golden as the brew itself, and in 1840 he abandoned the grocery business to build a modest brewery at 112 S. Second Street. A St. Louis industry was born. The brewery enjoyed marvelous success and John Adam Lemp died a millionaire.
William J. Lemp succeeded his father as the head of the brewery and he soon built it into an industrial giant. In 1864 a new plant was erected at Cherokee Street and Carondolet Avenue. The size of the brewery grew with the demand for its product and it soon covered five city blocks.
In 1870 Lemp was by far the largest brewery in St. Louis and the Lemp family symbolized the city’s wealth and power. Lemp beer controlled the lion’s share of the St. Louis market, a position it held until Prohibition. In 1892 the brewery was incorporated as the William J. Lemp Brewing Co. In 1897 two of the brewing industry’s titans toasted each other when William Lemp’s daughter, Hilda, married Gustav Pabst of the noted Milwaukee brewing family.
The Lemp Family
The demise of the Lemp empire is one of the great mercantile mysteries of St. Louis. The first major fissure in the Lemp dynasty occurred when Frederick Lemp, William’s favorite son and the heir apparent to the brewery presidency, died under mysterious circumstances in 1901. Three years later, William J. Lemp shot himself in the head in a bedroom at the family mansion, apparently still grieving the loss of his beloved Frederick. William J. Lemp, Jr. succeeded his father as president.
Tragedy continued to stalk the Lemps with startling ardor. The brewery’s fortunes continued to decline until Prohibition (1919) closed the plant permanently. William Jr.’s sister Elsa, who was considered the wealthiest heiress in St. Louis, committed suicide in 1920. On June 28, 1922, the magnificent Lemp brewery, which had once been valued at $7 million and covered ten city blocks, was sold at auction to International Shoe Co. for $588,500. Although most of the company’s assets were liquidated, the Lemps continued to have an almost morbid attachment for the family mansion. After presiding over the sale of the brewery, William J. Lemp, Jr. shot himself in the same building where his father died eighteen years earlier. His son, William Lemp III, was forty-two when he died of a heart attack in 1943. William Jr.’s brother, Charles, continued to reside at the house after his brother’s suicide. An extremely bitter man, Charles led a reclusive existence until he too died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound. The body was discovered by his brother, Edwin.
In 1970, Edwin Lemp died of natural causes at the age of ninety.
Not everyone is convinced that Junior’s death was a suicide, but may have been murder, as explained in All Things Lemp:
On December 28th, 1922 William Lemp Jr. was found shot to death in his office on the first floor of the Lemp Mansion. William Lemp Jr. was not a very well liked person. Junior’s personality was rather crass and abrupt. Most people who knew him would avoid him if all possible. Junior was not the first pick by his father to inherit the Lemp Brewery Presidency. This had to be embarrassing considering Junior was the oldest and by tradition the heir apparent. This honor was to be reserved for his youngest brother Fredrick. The reason why Junior was to be passed over to run the family’s brewing empire was the standing animosity between Junior and his father. Many think Senior despised his oldest son because he thought William Lemp Junior didn’t deserve to bear his name. Very few people at the time knew that William Lemp Jr. had an older brother that died shortly after birth. It pained his father deeply that the child died before it could be named. His father thought his first deceased son should have been given his name, not his second surviving son. This is believed to be the initial cause of their life long feud. Fredrick died in 1901 due to heart failure. If Fredrick would have survived, many think that we would have a Lemp Brewery today.
According to police reports, William Lemp Jr. was shot twice directly into the heart with a .38 caliber single action revolver. In order for someone to pull off a feat such as this, one would have to be able to pull the trigger twice. With a single action revolver, that would mean that he would have to cock the pistol, place it to his chest, and pull the trigger. Then he would have to repeat the process of cocking the revolver again, placing it to his chest, and pulling the trigger. I doubt seriously that anyone would have the ability to be able to shot themselves twice in the chest with this style of weapon. Especially after the initial shot would leave a rather large wound in your back and in shock. The police also found two rounds missing from the revolver’s cylinder. If he was shot twice, it there is a very good chance William Lemp Jr. was murdered.
The Coroner’s report states he was shot only once. If the Coroner is right it could have very well been a suicide. Since the findings of a Coroner’s inquiry outweighs the evidence presented by the police, the death of William Lemp Jr. was ruled a suicide, and the case was closed.
This is a slideshow of Lemp breweriana and photos.