Argentina Beer

argentina
Today in 1816, Argentina gained their Independence from Spain.

Argentina
argentina-color

Argentina Breweries

Argentina Brewery Guides

Other Guides

Guilds: Asociacion de Cerveceros Artesanales; La Asociacion de Cerveceros Artesanales de la Republica Argentina

National Regulatory Agency: None

Beverage Alcohol Labeling Requirements: Not Known

Drunk Driving Laws: BAC 0.05%

argentina

  • Full Name: Argentine Republic
  • Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
  • Government Type: Republic
  • Language: Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French
  • Religion(s): Nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
  • Capital: Buenos Aires
  • Population: 42,192,494; 32nd
  • Area: 2,780,400 sq km, 8th
  • Comparative Area: Slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
  • National Food: Asado, Empanada
  • National Symbols: Puma, Rufous Hornero (bird); Ceibo flower; Ceibo, Red Quebracho trees; Yerba mate, Obelisk of Buenos Aires; Sun of May, Cockade of Argentina; Río de la Plata (River Plate)
  • Affiliations: UN, OAS
  • Independence: From Spain, July 9, 1816

argentina-coa

  • Alcohol Legal: Yes
  • Minimum Drinking Age: 18
  • BAC: 0.05%
  • Label Requirements: N/A
  • Number of Breweries: 54

argentina-money

  • How to Say “Beer”: cerveza
  • How to Order a Beer: Una cerveza, por favor
  • How to Say “Cheers”: Salud / Cheers
  • Toasting Etiquette: If you are toasted, return the favor. In Argentina, ‘Salud!’ or ‘Cheers!’ are popular toasts.

argentina-map

Alcohol Consumption By Type:

  • Beer: 32%
  • Wine: 59%
  • Spirits: 7%
  • Other: 2%

Alcohol Consumption Per Capita (in litres):

  • Recorded: 8.00
  • Unrecorded: 2.00
  • Total: 10.00
  • Beer: 2.49

WHO Alcohol Data:

  • Per Capita Consumption: 8 litres
  • Alcohol Consumption Trend: Stable
  • Excise Taxes: N/A
  • Minimum Age: 18
  • Sales Restrictions: Time, specific events
  • Advertising Restrictions: No
  • Sponsorship/Promotional Restrictions: No

Patterns of Drinking Score: 2

Prohibition: None

argentina-so-amer

Venezuela Beer

venezuela
Today in 1811, Venezuela gained their Independence from Spain.

Venezuela
venezuela-color

Venezuela Breweries

Venezuela Brewery Guides

Other Guides

Guild: None Known

National Regulatory Agency: None

Beverage Alcohol Labeling Requirements: Not Known

Drunk Driving Laws: BAC 0.05%

Venezuela

  • Full Name: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
  • Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana
  • Government Type: Federal Republic
  • Language: Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
  • Religion(s): Nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%
  • Capital: Caracas
  • Population: 28,047,938; 45th
  • Area: 912,050 sq km, 33rd
  • Comparative Area: Slightly more than twice the size of California
  • National Food: Pabellón criollo
  • National Symbols: Venezuelan Troupial; Cattleya orchid (“Flor de Mayo”); Araguaney (Tabebuia chrysantha); The Seven Stars, arranged in semicircle
  • Nickname: Land of Grace
  • Affiliations: UN, OAS
  • Independence: From Spain, July 5, 1811

venezuela-coa

  • Alcohol Legal: Yes
  • Minimum Drinking Age: 18
  • BAC: 0.08%
  • Label Requirements: N/A
  • Number of Breweries: 11

venezuela-money

  • How to Say “Beer”: cerveza
  • How to Order a Beer: Una cerveza, por favor
  • How to Say “Cheers”: Salud
  • Toasting Etiquette: Wait for a toast to be made before taking the first sip of your drink. Venezuelans typically toast with the word ‘salud’. The host makes the first toast.

    Toasts are common in Venezuela, and it is not unusual for a host to offer a toast in honor of a visitor. A toast of this kind should be acknowledged with a smile and a cheerful attitude. A visitor should be careful not to drink before the toast or while the toast is being offered, as this may be considered insulting.

venezuela-map

Alcohol Consumption By Type:

  • Beer: 75%
  • Wine: 1%
  • Spirits: 24%

Alcohol Consumption Per Capita (in litres):

  • Recorded: 6.83
  • Unrecorded: 1.40
  • Total: 8.23
  • Beer: 5.19

WHO Alcohol Data:

  • Per Capita Consumption: 6.8 litres
  • Alcohol Consumption Trend: Stable
  • Excise Taxes: Yes
  • Minimum Age: 18
  • Sales Restrictions: Time, places, specific events
  • Advertising Restrictions: Yes
  • Sponsorship/Promotional Restrictions: Alcohol sponsorship

Patterns of Drinking Score: 3

Prohibition: None

venezuela-so-amer

Guyana Beer

guyana
Today in 1966, Guyana gained their Independence from the UK.

Guyana
guyana-color

Guyana Breweries

Guyana Brewery Guides

Other Guides

Guild: None Known

National Regulatory Agency: None

Beverage Alcohol Labeling Requirements: Not Known

Drunk Driving Laws: BAC 0.08%

Guyana

  • Full Name: Cooperative Republic of Guyana
  • Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela
  • Government Type: Republic
  • Language: English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Urdu
  • Religion(s): Protestant 30.5% (Pentecostal 16.9%, Anglican 6.9%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Methodist 1.7%), Hindu 28.4%, Roman Catholic 8.1%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 1.1%, Muslim 7.2%, other Christian 17.7%, other 4.3%, none 4.3%
  • Capital: Georgetown
  • Population: 741,908; 163th
  • Area: 214,969 sq km, 85th
  • Comparative Area: Slightly smaller than Idaho
  • National Food: Guyana Pepperpot
  • National Symbols: Canje Pheasant, Jaguar; Victoria waterlily
  • Affiliations: UN, Commonwealth, OAS
  • Independence: From the UK, May 26, 1966

guyana_coa

  • Alcohol Legal: Yes
  • Minimum Drinking Age: 18
  • BAC: 0.08%
  • Label Requirements: N/A
  • Number of Breweries: 1

Guyana-money

  • How to Say “Beer”: beer
  • How to Order a Beer: One beer, please
  • How to Say “Cheers”: Cheers
  • Toasting Etiquette: N/A

guyana-map

Alcohol Consumption By Type:

  • Beer: 16%
  • Wine: 4%
  • Spirits: 80%
  • Other: <1%

Alcohol Consumption Per Capita (in litres):

  • Recorded: 7.50
  • Unrecorded: 2.00
  • Total: 9.50
  • Beer: 1.14

WHO Alcohol Data:

  • Per Capita Consumption: 7.5 litres
  • Alcohol Consumption Trend: Stable
  • Excise Taxes: Yes
  • Minimum Age: 18
  • Sales Restrictions: Hours, locations, specific events, intoxicated persons
  • Advertising Restrictions: No
  • Sponsorship/Promotional Restrictions: No

Patterns of Drinking Score: 3

Prohibition: None

guyana-so-amer

Ecuador Beer

ecuador
Today in 1822, Ecuador gained their Independence from Spain.

Ecuador
ecuador-color

Ecuador Breweries

Ecuador Brewery Guides

Other Guides

Guild: None Known

National Regulatory Agency: None

Beverage Alcohol Labeling Requirements: Not Known

Drunk Driving Laws: BAC 0.08%

ecuador

  • Full Name: Republic of Ecuador
  • Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
  • Government Type: Republic
  • Language: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
  • Religion(s): Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
  • Capital: Quito
  • Population: 15,223,680; 66th
  • Area: 283,561 sq km, 74th
  • Comparative Area: Slightly smaller than Nevada
  • National Food: ceviche; Deep fried Guinea Pig
  • National Symbol: Andean Condor
  • Affiliations: UN, OAS
  • Independence: From Spain, May 24, 1822 / Proclaimed independence from Spain on August 10, 1809, but failed with the execution of all the conspirators of the movement on August 2, 1810. Independence finally occurred on May 24, 1822 at the Battle of Pichincha.

ecuador

  • Alcohol Legal: Yes
  • Minimum Drinking Age: 18
  • BAC: 0.07%
  • Label Requirements: N/A
  • Number of Breweries: 9

Ecuador-EC114

  • How to Say “Beer”: cerveza
  • How to Order a Beer: Una cerveza, por favor
  • How to Say “Cheers”: Salud
  • Toasting Etiquette: Toasts in Ecuador are usually impromptu. The person making the toast stands when proposing the toast and remains standing until all present have had a taste of wine. If the toast is directed to a visitor, the visitor will be expected to reciprocate.

ecuador-map

Alcohol Consumption By Type:

  • Beer: 56%
  • Wine: 2%
  • Spirits: 42%

Alcohol Consumption Per Capita (in litres):

  • Recorded: 4.01
  • Unrecorded: 5.37
  • Total: 9.38
  • Beer: 2.30

WHO Alcohol Data:

  • Per Capita Consumption: 4 litres
  • Alcohol Consumption Trend: Stable
  • Excise Taxes: Yes
  • Minimum Age: 18
  • Sales Restrictions: Location, specific events
  • Advertising Restrictions: Yes
  • Sponsorship/Promotional Restrictions: Alcohol sponsorship

Patterns of Drinking Score: 4

Prohibition: None

ecuador-so-amer

Paraguay Beer

paraguay
Today in 1811, Paraguay gained their Independence from Spain.

Paraguay
paraguay-color

Paraguay Breweries

Paraguay Brewery Guides

Other Guides

Guild: None Known

National Regulatory Agency: None

Beverage Alcohol Labeling Requirements: Not Known

Drunk Driving Laws: BAC 0.08%

Paraguay

  • Full Name: Republic of Paraguay
  • Location: Central South America, northeast of Argentina, southwest of Brazil
  • Government Type: Constitutional republic
  • Language: Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
  • Religion(s): Roman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, none 1.1%
  • Capital: Asunción
  • Population: 6,541,591; 104th
  • Area: 406,752 sq km, 60th
  • Comparative Area: Slightly smaller than California
  • National Food: Sopa paraguaya
  • National Symbol: Lion; Lapacho (Tabebuia impetiginosa)
  • Affiliations: UN, OAS
  • Independence: From Spain, May 14, 1811 (sometimes observed 15 May)

Paraguay-coa

  • Alcohol Legal: Yes
  • Minimum Drinking Age: 20
  • BAC: 0.08%
  • Label Requirements: N/A
  • Number of Breweries: 5

paraguay-money

  • How to Say “Beer”: cerveza
  • How to Order a Beer: Una cerveza, por favor
  • How to Say “Cheers”: Salud
  • Toasting Etiquette: N/A

paraguay-map

Alcohol Consumption By Type:

  • Beer: 54%
  • Wine: 15%
  • Spirits: 28%
  • Other: 3%

Alcohol Consumption Per Capita (in litres):

  • Recorded: 6.38
  • Unrecorded: 1.50
  • Total: 7.88
  • Beer: 3.48

WHO Alcohol Data:

  • Per Capita Consumption: 6.4 litres
  • Alcohol Consumption Trend: Stable
  • Excise Taxes: N/A
  • Minimum Age: 20
  • Sales Restrictions: Specific events
  • Advertising Restrictions: No
  • Sponsorship/Promotional Restrictions: Sponsorship

Patterns of Drinking Score: 3

Prohibition: None

paraguay-sa

Brazilian Brewer Nominated For “Man Of The Year”

brazil
One of the brewers I met during my trip to South America earlier this year for the South Beer Cup was Alexandre Bazzo, owner and brewmaster of Micro Cervejaria Bamberg in Votorantim, Brazil. Bazzo studied brewing in Germany and his brewery consistently makes some of the finest German-style beers I’ve had outside of Bavaria, which is all the more impressive given the scarcity of ingredients in South America. In fact, every Bamberg Bier I’ve tried has been top notch. Plus, he’s a terrific person who is very passionate about his beer.

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Alex, with Stephen Beaumont, speaking at a beer dinner Melograno in Sao Paulo this May.

A prominent magazine in Brazil, Alfa, has a contest online, asking people to vote for Brazil’s Man of the Year 2011. There are about 50 people nominated, and the list includes a number of famous people (in Brazil), including formers presidents, artists, and athletes, but only one brewer. Bazzo’s currently in second place, so he could actually win this thing. I think it would send a fun message that a brewer could be declared “Man of the Year.”

It appears that anyone can vote — I did — and you don’t have to register or anything. Just go to the contest page at Alfa Magazine. There you’ll see a roster of small icons for each of the nominees. Alex is on the top row, second from the right. Just click on the “Alexandre Bazzo” square and a pop-up window will appear, it looks just like below. Just click on “ENVIAR SEU VOTO” to vote for Alex.

bazzo-bio

Below is the translation for the voting pop-up page:

Bazzo Alexander, 35, is the founder and brewer of Bamberg, one of Brazil’s most award-winning microbrews. In 2011, Bamberg took the award for best brewer in South America, at the South Beer Cup, held in Argentina, and four of their labels won silver medals. In the Australian International Beer Awards, five of them won bronze medals. This year, sales of Bamberg increased more than 35%. Twitter: @BambergBier.

bamberg-bier

Did Lager Yeast Come From Patagonia?

yeast-cell
You probably saw this little item, it’s been all over the interwebs over the last few days, about a group of eight scientists positing that a newly discovered yeast strain, dubbed Saccharomyces eubayanus, may have hitched a ride from Patagonia, in South America, to Europe where it got busy with local yeasts there — notably Saccharomyces cerevisiae — to form the yeast we know today as lager yeast, or Saccharomyces pastorianus (a.k.a. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis).

The academic paper, to be published in the August edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (or PNAS), goes by the rather dry title, Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast. The Abstract summarizes the paper:

Domestication of plants and animals promoted humanity’s transition from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles, demographic expansion, and the emergence of civilizations. In contrast to the well-documented successes of crop and livestock breeding, processes of microbe domestication remain obscure, despite the importance of microbes to the production of food, beverages, and biofuels. Lager-beer, first brewed in the 15th century, employs an allotetraploid hybrid yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus (syn. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), a domesticated species created by the fusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale-yeast with an unknown cryotolerant Saccharomyces species. We report the isolation of that species and designate it Saccharomyces eubayanus sp. nov. because of its resemblance to Saccharomyces bayanus (a complex hybrid of S. eubayanus, Saccharomyces uvarum, and S. cerevisiae found only in the brewing environment). Individuals from populations of S. eubayanus and its sister species, S. uvarum, exist in apparent sympatry in Nothofagus (Southern beech) forests in Patagonia, but are isolated genetically through intrinsic postzygotic barriers, and ecologically through host-preference. The draft genome sequence of S. eubayanus is 99.5% identical to the non-S. cerevisiae portion of the S. pastorianus genome sequence and suggests specific changes in sugar and sulfite metabolism that were crucial for domestication in the lager-brewing environment. This study shows that combining microbial ecology with comparative genomics facilitates the discovery and preservation of wild genetic stocks of domesticated microbes to trace their history, identify genetic changes, and suggest paths to further industrial improvement.

Mainstream media, picking up the story, has sensationalized it, looking for the human angle. For example the L.A. Times compared the discovery to finding the evolutionary missing link, titling their piece Scientists find lager beer’s missing link — in Patagonia. Essentially, they detail the scientists’ five-year quest to answer the question of where lager yeast originated, and how it came to be. The answer, according to the new paper, is a newly found strain of yeast discovered in the forests of Argentina’s Patagonia region. The wild yeast was named Saccharomyces eubayanus, and it was found living on beech trees.

According to the Times’ report:

Their best bet is that centuries ago, S. eubayanus somehow found its way to Europe and hybridized with the domestic yeast used to brew ale, creating an organism that can ferment at the lower temperatures used to make lager.

Geneticists have known since the 1980s that the yeast brewers use to make lager, S. pastorianus, was a hybrid of two yeast species: S. cerevisiae — used to make ales, wine and bread — and some other, unidentified organism.

Then one of the eight, Diego Libkind, a professor at the Institute for Biodiversity and Environment Research in Bariloche, Argentina, discovered sugar-rich galls on southern beech trees in Patagonia. Yeast were drawn to the galls like a moth to a flame, and had been used by native populations to make a fermented beverage. The yeast in the galls was sent to the University of Colorado, who analyzed the genome, finding that it was 99.5% identical to lager yeast. They named the new yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus, presumably because of its similarity to Saccharomyces bayanus, a yeast commonly used to make cider and wine. Said Stanford geneticist Gavin Sherlock, quoted in the L.A. Times: “The DNA evidence is strong.”

yeast-gall-2

Naturally, Sherlock, and many others have been wondering how Saccharomyces eubayanus hitched a ride to Bavaria at a time when there was no known contact between the two parts of the world, separated by an ocean and some 8,000 miles. The article also states that “Lager was invented in the 1400s,” though my memory is that European brewers were using lager yeast well before that, and it was the lagering process was developed in the 1400s, but perhaps I’m not remembering that correctly.

lager-yeast-maps

In an interesting development surrounding this debate, U. Penn biomolecular archeologist, Patrick McGovern (author of Uncorking the Past), weighed in with his thoughts at the MSNBC article about this story, Beer mystery solved! Yeast ID’d. Here’s what McGovern had to say, as summarized by author John Roach:

Assuming the genetics work is correct, he said he is “troubled by how this newly discovered wild yeast strain made it into Bavaria in the 1500s.”

For one, he noted, Germans, and especially Bavarians, were not involved in the European exploration of Patagonia at the time. So, if the yeast somehow hitched a ride back to Europe via trade with the English, Spanish, and Portuguese, how did it get to Bavaria?

“Perhaps, some Patagonian beech was used to make a wine barrel that was then transported to Bavaria and subsequently inoculated a batch of beer there?” he asked. “Seems unlikely.”

He said a more likely scenario is that galls in the oak forests of southern Germany also harbored S. eubayanus, at least until it was out competed by the more ubiquitous S. cerevisiae.

“If true, then the use of European oak in making beer barrels and especially processing vats, which could harbor the yeast, might better explain the Bavarian ‘discovery’ of lager in the 1500s,” he said.

Nevertheless, he added, history and archaeology are full of surprises.

“Nowhere is this more true than of the seemingly miraculous process of fermentation and the key role of alcohol in human culture and life itself on this planet,” he said.

“This article has begun to unravel the complicated heritage and life history of the fermentation yeasts, and will hopefully stimulate more research to see whether the Patagonian hypothesis proves correct.”

Diplomatically put, because as everyone admits, the find in South America may not be the exclusive area where Saccharomyces eubayanus lives, just the first place it’s been found. The human history portion of this story doesn’t seem to quite fit at this point, but it’s certainly a compelling story and it will be interesting to see how it continues to develop.

yeast-gall-1

Beer In Ads #372: Nova Schin Sao Paulo Fashion

ad-billboard
Wednesday’s ad is another recent one for the Brazilian beer, Nova Schin, and it’s a very odd one. It’s apparently for Fashion Week in Sao Paulo, but to me it just comes off as a little creepy. Of course, I have no sense of fashion, so it’s probably me.

nova-schin-beer-sao-paulo-fashion-week-1-small-82769

There’s at least two more ads in the Fashion Week series, but they don’t help make it any less odd of an ad campaign.

nova-schin-beer-sao-paulo-fashion-week-2-small-91823

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