Tuesday’s ad is for the Munich Oktoberfest, from 2013, though it’s not the official poster for that year. This one was one of the posters entered in that year’s contest to choose the official poster. From the late 1800s until the 1970s, poster art really came into its own, and in Europe a lot of really cool posters, many of them for breweries, were produced. This poster is for the Munich Oktoberfest, which began September 21 and runs through October 6. Originally I thought from now until then I’d post posters from the German folk festival, but now that Oktoberfest is over I think I’ll just keep going. From what I can tell, official Oktoberfest posters started being produced each year beginning in 1952. This poster was created by Swiss-German artist Filip Triner.
Archives for November 2019
Today is the birthday of Simon E. Bernheimer (November 26, 1849-July 25, 1911). He was born in New York, the son of Emmanuel Bernheimer, who founded the Constanz Brewery, with his partner August Schmid, in 1850, on East 4th Street near Avenue B, and a couple of years later, with a different partner, James Speyers, he started the Lion Brewery on Columbus Ave, between 107th and 108th Streets in Manhattan, next door to the beer garden at the Lion Park, and indeed it is sometimes referred to as the Lion Park Brewery. The business was reorganized in 1868, and his old business partner August Schmid also became a partner in the Lion Brewery, and by 1890 its official name was the Bernheimer & Schmid Brewery, though they continued to trade under the Lion Brewery name. In 1878, Simon took over the business when his father retired. In 1895, it was the sixth-largest brewery in the U.S. After 1903, it was called the Lion Brewery of New York, presumably to avoid confusion with the many other breweries with Lion in their name. Lion survived prohibition but closed for good in 1942.
This biography of Bernheimer is from “The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 5,” published in 1894:
This is about the brewery from Wikipedia:
Shortly after immigrating to the United States, Swiss-German August Schmid and Emanuel Bernheimer founded the Costanz Brewery at East 4th Street near Avenue B in 1850. The brewery produced a lagered beer, a favorite among German immigrants. By 1852, they built a second Costanz Brewery at Four Corners in Staten Island, home to a large German community. Five years later, Bernheimer became the partner of another German immigrant, James Speyers and founded the Lion Brewery in 1857 in Manhattan Valley.
A group of Catholic Bavarians helped build the Lion Brewery. When it was built, they held masses in the Brewery on Sunday mornings.
At its peak, the Lion Brewery occupied about six square city blocks, from Central Park West to Amsterdam Avenue and from 107th to 109th Street. At the time Manhattan’s Upper West Side was an open area with inexpensive land housing, many public institutions and an insane asylum. There were about five to ten thousand living in shanties after being displaced by the creation of Central Park in 1859. Consequently, with the brewery and surrounding areas, the Upper West Side failed to increase its real estate value until the early twentieth century.
In 1862, a $1 tax on each barrel of beer hurt small brewers but not Lion. The anti-saloon movement in the late 19th and early 20th century encouraged Lion to clean up its own saloons. Lion Brewery got caught up in a wave of mergers and closings among some of the smaller New York Brewers in the early 1940s which continued until 1941, when the business closed. The brewery (including the canning facilities) was auctioned off on August 26, 1943. The plant was demolished in 1944 and more than 3,000 tons of steel were taken from the original brewery structure and recycled for the war effort.
After the Brewery was knocked down the lot was paved over with cinders. On Sundays, after the war, returning World War II Veterans formed a Softball League and played almost every Sunday afternoon. Home plate was located near 107th street and Columbus Avenue. Today, apartment houses occupy the Lion brewery’s former location.
Around 1860, the brewery published a pamphlet titled “Observations on Brewing and Beer: With an Analysis and Scientific Testimony Relative to the Lager Beer of the Speyers’ Lion Brewery.” The pamphlet had a short history of the different kinds of beer, and an analysis showing that their lager beer was pure. The pamphlet also included some great line drawings of the brewery complex.
And here’s another story from Rusty Cans:
In 1850 recent Swiss German immigrants August Schmid and Emanuel Bernheimer founded the Costanz Brewery at East 4th Street near Avenue B. The brewery specialized in lagered beer, a favorites among their fellow immigrants. By 1852, their success encouraged them to build a second Costanz Brewery at Four Corners in Staten Island, then home to a large German immigrant community. Eight years later, Bernheimer became the partner of another German immigrant, James Speyers, in his Lion Brewery, established in 1857.
The Lion Brewery, depicted here, occupied a site bounded by what are now Central Park West and Amsterdam Avenue and extending from 107th to 109th Streets. The background view includes Central Park, with a glimpse of the Blockhouse, a relic from the War of 1812. (The Church of the Ascension is there now, built with the brewery’s help in the 1890s). During this period Manhattan’s Upper West Side was a relatively open area offering inexpensive land and it accommodated numerous public institutions including an insane asylum. Also clustered in the neighborhood were the shanty homes of between 5-10,000 thousand people displaced by the formal opening of Central Park in 1859. The combination of shanties, public institutions, and such foul-smelling industries as breweries explains why the Upper West Side failed to develop the real estate value of other areas bordering Central Park until the early twentieth century.
Late in the life of the Lion Brewery, it became involved in a number of mergers and acquisitions, eventually becoming The Greater New York Brewery, Inc.:
Lion brewing got caught up in a wave of mergers and closing among some of the smaller New York Brewers in the early 1940s. In late 1940, the Fidelio Brewing Co., located at 1st Ave. between 29th and 30th Streets., closed. However, on November 15, 1940, it reopened business as the Greater New York Brewery, Inc. In December 1940, the Greater New York Brewery merged with the Horton Pilsener Brewing Co., which was located at Amsterdam Ave. and 128th Street. Horton Brewing President Alex White became a director of Greater New York Brewery and they continued producing previous Horton products. In January 1941, the Greater New York Brewery merged with City Brewing Corporation of Queens. In February of 1941, Horton, as part of Greater New York Brewery, closed its doors. On April 9, 1941, City Brewing Corporation, as part of Greater New York Brewery, temporarily had its license canceled because of illegal merchandising in the form of gifts to retailers. (It apparently reopened at a later date.)
In May of 1941, Greater New York Brewery, Inc. acquired the Lion Brewery. It was the only brewery of the four that merged that had facilities to package beer in flat top cans. But by February of 1942, the Lion Brewery was closed and put up for sale. There being no buyers, the brewery (including the canning facilities) was auctioned off on August 26, 1943. In 1944 over 3,000 tons of steel were taken from the original brewery structure and recycled for the war effort. In April, 1946, the Greater New York Brewery, Inc. became known as the Greater New York Industries. This entity remained in operation until 1950.
For its short lifetime the former Lion Brewery continued to produce beer in cans labeled as products of the Greater New York Brewery. The two flat tops produced are scarce, but not truly rare. However, during its short life span, the Greater New York Brewery also produced a very rare crowntainer and two rare quarts containing Lion beer and ale. There are only 3 of the Beer quarts known today and the Ale is not much more common. Another rare Lion can, a Lion Pilsner, was produced by Pilsner Brewing in New York in the 1940s, but I do not yet know this company’s relationship to the original Lion Brewing. Today, apartment houses occupy the Lion brewery’s former location.
Today is the birthday of Georg Schneider (November 26, 1817-1890) who co-founded G. Schneider & Son along with his son Georg Schneider II in 1872. Georg leased the royal ‘Weisse Brauhuas’ Hofbräuhaus in Munich in 1855 and purchased from King Ludwig II the right to brew wheat beer in 1872. Georg, along with his son acquired the so-called Maderbräu Im Tal 10′ in 1872.
Both he and his son passed away in 1890, and his grandson, Georg III, took over the brewery even though he was barely 20 at the time, and today George VI still owns and runs the brewery.
Here’s what the brewery website has about their history:
The history of wheat beer is also the history of the Schneider brewing family and its famous Schneider Weisse. Georg I Schneider, as the wheat beer pioneer and creator of the Schneider Weisse Original recipe (which is still used today), is revered by all wheat beer connoisseurs.
Two-hundred years ago, wheat beer could only be brewed by the Bavarian royal family in their reweries. In 1872, King Ludwig II discontinued brewing wheat beer due to a steady decline in sales.
That same year, he sold Georg I Schneider the exclusive right to brew wheat beer. Thus, the Schneider Family saved wheat beer from extinction. Today, Georg VI Schneider is running the brewery in Kelheim, which the family acquired in 1927 and has remained the Schneider Weisse brewery to this day. It is the oldest wheat beer brewery in Bavaria; wheat beer has been brewed there without interruption since its founding in the year 1607.
The Schneider Brauhaus has a slightly different history of the Schneider story:
Georg Schneider I was a tenant of the Königlich Weissen Hofbräuhaus in Munich between 1855 and 1873. On the basis of the prevailing narrow conditions, the production of white beer was to be abandoned. The victory of the lower-fermented beers (at that time known as brown beer) could no longer be stopped in Bavaria.
Georg Schneider I believed, however, that the old top-breed brewing method had a future. Therefore, during the reign of King Ludwig II, he negotiated with the Bavarian court brethren about the replacement of the Weissbierregal (the right to brew Weissbier). The latter believed that he could give the request, since Weissbier was no longer allowed any chance.
At the same time Georg Schneider I had the opportunity to purchase the abandoned Maderbräu. After about a year of conversion, he began to produce his own white beer together with his son Georg Schneider II. The “Schneider Weisse” was born and the “Weisse Bräuhaus G. Schneider & Sohn” from the original Maderbräu became. Georg Schneider I himself was responsible for the business and found in his wife Maria Anna, born Hettel, an efficient cook and economist.
Overall, the acquisition of Georg Schneider I was a speculation with a high level of commitment. The success did not fail. The influx of guests, who wanted to enjoy a “delicious mouth beer” soon surpassed all expectations. George Schneider I is rightly referred to as the Weissbierpionier, who has rescued the superior brewing methods in their original form into modern times.
The “Weisses Bräuhaus” in Munich, Tal (or Thal) is the founding place of their brewery. It’s the place where Georg Schneider I brewed his first Schneider Weisse Original in 1872.
“In 1927 the owners, who to this day are descendants of Georg Schneider I, expanded their brewing operations into Kelheim and Straubing. After the breweries in Munich were destroyed in 1944 by aerial bombardment by the Allies of World War II, the entire production was relocated to Kelheim.”
Monday’s ad is for the Munich Oktoberfest, from 2013, though it’s not the official poster for that year. This one was the third-place winner from that year’s contest to choose the official poster. From the late 1800s until the 1970s, poster art really came into its own, and in Europe a lot of really cool posters, many of them for breweries, were produced. This poster is for the Munich Oktoberfest, which began September 21 and runs through October 6. Originally I thought from now until then I’d post posters from the German folk festival, but now that Oktoberfest is over I think I’ll just keep going. From what I can tell, official Oktoberfest posters started being produced each year beginning in 1952. This poster was created by German artists Dominik Schech and Anne Hellpodt.
Today is the birthday of Carrie Nation (November 25, 1846–June 9, 1911). Many biographies of her today refer to her as a “famous leader and activist,” a “temperance crusader” or “temperance advocate.” But she was also a terrorist who tried to impose her will by smashing up bars. One simple definition of terrorism is “the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims.” That’s exactly what she was doing, and why she was celebrated by temperance groups, especially the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, which she was a member of and also started a local branch. None of these groups did much to stop her destroying private property and terrorizing people she disagreed with, because even though they wouldn’t come out publicly in favor of such tactics, in private they were just fine with the results. That she’s still revered in some circles today strikes me as quite odd. She was a criminal, and yet has her own page on The State Historical Society of Missouri’s “Historic Missourians,” (which is doubly odd since she was born in Kentucky and only moved to Missouri when she was a young girl). Many biographies refer to her “passionate activism against alcohol” or her “passion for fighting liquor” as positive attributes, which certainly seems like revisionist history and apologists for criminal behavior to me. Certainly, the bar owners and patrons whom she encountered have a considerably different opinion of her “passion.” According to Wikipedia, “She described herself as ‘a bulldog running along at the feet of Jesus, barking at what He doesn’t like,’ and claimed a divine ordination to promote temperance by destroying bars.”
Here’s her entry from Wikipedia:
Nation was born in Garrard County, Kentucky, to George and Mary (née Campbell) Moore. Her father was a successful farmer, stock trader, and slaveholder of Irish descent. During much of her early life, her health was poor and her family experienced financial setbacks. The family moved several times in Kentucky and finally settled in Belton, Missouri in 1854. She had poor education and informal learning.
In addition to their financial difficulties, many of her family members suffered from mental illness, her mother at times having delusions. There is speculation that the family did not stay in one place long because of rumors about Nation’s mother’s mental state. Some writers have speculated that Nation’s mother, Mary, believed she was Queen Victoria because of her love of finery and social airs. Mary lived in an insane asylum in Nevada, Missouri, from August 1890 until her death on September 28, 1893. Mary was put in the asylum through legal action by her son, Charles, although there is suspicion that Charles instigated the lawsuit because he owed Mary money.
The family moved to Texas as Missouri became involved in the Civil War in 1862. George did not fare well in Texas, and he moved his family back to Missouri. The family returned to High Grove Farm in Cass County. When the Union Army ordered them to evacuate their farm, they moved to Kansas City. Carrie nursed wounded soldiers after a raid on Independence, Missouri. The family again returned to their farm when the Civil War ended.
In 1865 Carrie met Charles Gloyd, a young physician who had fought for the Union, who was a severe alcoholic. Gloyd taught school near the Moores’ farm while deciding where to establish his medical practice. He eventually settled on Holden, Missouri, and asked Nation to marry him. Nation’s parents objected to the union because they believed he was addicted to alcohol, but the marriage proceeded. They were married on November 21, 1867, and separated shortly before the birth of their daughter, Charlien, on September 27, 1868. Gloyd died in 1869 of alcoholism.
Influenced by the death of her husband, Nation developed a passionate activism against alcohol. With the proceeds from selling her inherited land (as well as that of her husband’s estate), she built a small house in Holden. She moved there with her mother-in-law and Charlien, and attended the Normal Institute in Warrensburg, Missouri, earning her teaching certificate in July 1872. She taught at a school in Holden for four years. She obtained a history degree and studied the influence of Greek philosophers on American politics.
In 1874, Carrie married David A. Nation, an attorney, minister, newspaper journalist, and father, 19 years her senior.
The family purchased a 1,700 acre (690 ha) cotton plantation on the San Bernard River in Brazoria County, Texas. As neither knew much about farming, the venture was ultimately unsuccessful. David Nation moved to Brazoria to practice law. In about 1880, Carrie moved to Columbia to operate the hotel owned by A. R. and Jesse W. Park. Her name is on the Columbia Methodist Church roll. She lived at the hotel with her daughter, Charlien Gloyd, “Mother Gloyd” (Carrie’s first mother-in-law), and David’s daughter, Lola. Her husband also operated a saddle shop just southwest of this site. The family soon moved to Richmond, Texas to operate a hotel.
David Nation became involved in the Jaybird–Woodpecker War. As a result, he was forced to move back north to Medicine Lodge, Kansas in 1889, where he found work preaching at a Christian church and Carrie ran a successful hotel.
She began her temperance work in Medicine Lodge by starting a local branch of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and campaigning for the enforcement of Kansas’ ban on the sale of liquor. Her methods escalated from simple protests to serenading saloon patrons with hymns accompanied by a hand organ, to greeting bartenders with pointed remarks such as, “Good morning, destroyer of men’s souls.” She also helped her mother and her daughter who had mental health problems.
Dissatisfied with the results of her efforts, Nation began to pray to God for direction. On June 5, 1900, she felt she received her answer in the form of a heavenly vision. As she described it:
The next morning I was awakened by a voice which seemed to me speaking in my heart, these words, “GO TO KIOWA,” and my hands were lifted and thrown down and the words, “I’LL STAND BY YOU.” The words, “Go to Kiowa,” were spoken in a murmuring, musical tone, low and soft, but “I’ll stand by you,” was very clear, positive and emphatic. I was impressed with a great inspiration, the interpretation was very plain, it was this: “Take something in your hands, and throw at these places in Kiowa and smash them.”
Responding to the revelation, Nation gathered several rocks – “smashers”, she called them – and proceeded to Dobson’s Saloon on June 7. Announcing “Men, I have come to save you from a drunkard’s fate”, she began to destroy the saloon’s stock with her cache of rocks. After she similarly destroyed two other saloons in Kiowa, a tornado hit eastern Kansas, which she took as divine approval of her actions.
Nation continued her destructive ways in Kansas, her fame spreading through her growing arrest record. After she led a raid in Wichita, Kansas, her husband joked that she should use a hatchet next time for maximum damage. Nation replied, “That is the most sensible thing you have said since I married you.” The couple divorced in 1901; they had no children. Between 1902-06 she lived in Guthrie, Oklahoma.
Alone or accompanied by hymn-singing women, she would march into a bar and sing and pray while smashing bar fixtures and stock with a hatchet. Her actions often did not include other people, just herself. Between 1900 and 1910, she was arrested some 30 times for “hatchetations”, as she came to call them. Nation paid her jail fines from lecture-tour fees and sales of souvenir hatchets. The souvenirs were provided by a Topeka, Kansas pharmacist. Engraved on the handle of the hatchet, the pin reads, “Death to Rum”.
In April 1901, Nation went to Kansas City, Missouri, a city known for its wide opposition to the temperance movement, and smashed liquor in various bars on 12th Street in downtown Kansas City. She was arrested, hauled into court and fined $500 ($13,400 in 2011 dollars), although the judge suspended the fine so long as Nation never returned to Kansas City. She would be arrested over 32 times—one report is that she was placed in the Washington DC poorhouse for three days for refusing to pay a $35 fine.
Nation also conducted women’s rights marches in Topeka, Kansas. She led hundreds of women that were part of the Home Defender’s Army to march in opposition to saloons.
In Amarillo, Texas, Nation received a strong response, as she was sponsored by the noted surveyor W.D. Twichell, an active Methodist layman.
Nation’s anti-alcohol activities became widely known, with the slogan “All Nations Welcome But Carrie” becoming a bar-room staple. She published The Smasher’s Mail, a biweekly newsletter, and The Hatchet, a newspaper. Later in life she exploited her name by appearing in vaudeville in the United States and music halls in Great Britain. In October 1909, various press outlets reported that Nation claimed to have invented an aeroplane.
Nation, a proud woman more given to sermonizing than entertaining, found these venues uninspiring for her proselytizing. One of the number of pre-World War I acts that “failed to click” with foreign audiences, Nation was struck by an egg thrown by an audience member during one 1909 music hall lecture at the Canterbury Theatre of Varieties. Indignantly, “The Anti-Souse Queen” ripped up her contract and returned to the United States. Seeking profits elsewhere, she sold photographs of herself, collected lecture fees, and marketed miniature souvenir hatchets.
Suspicious that President William McKinley was a secret drinker, Nation applauded his 1901 assassination because drinkers “got what they deserved.”
Near the end of her life, Nation moved to Eureka Springs, Arkansas where she founded the home known as “Hatchet Hall”. In poor health, she collapsed during a speech in a Eureka Springs park. She was taken to a hospital in Leavenworth, Kansas, the Evergreen Place Hospital and Sanitarium located on 25 acres at Limit Street and South Maple Avenue just outside the city limits of Leavenworth.
Evergreen Place Hospital was founded and operated by Dr. Charles Goddard, a professor at the University of Kansas School of Medicine and a distinguished authority on nervous and mental troubles, liquor and drug habits.
Nation died there on June 9, 1911. She was buried in an unmarked grave in Belton City Cemetery in Belton, Missouri. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union later erected a stone inscribed “Faithful to the Cause of Prohibition, She Hath Done What She Could” and the name “Carry A. Nation.”
And this is her biography from the Encyclopedia Britannica:
Carry Nation, in full Carry A. Nation, née Carrie Amelia Moore, (born November 25, 1846, Garrard county, Kentucky, U.S.—died June 9, 1911, Leavenworth, Kansas), American temperance advocate famous for using a hatchet to demolish barrooms.
Carry Moore as a child experienced poverty, her mother’s mental instability, and frequent bouts of ill health. Although she held a teaching certificate from a state normal school, her education was intermittent. In 1867 she married a young physician, Charles Gloyd, whom she left after a few months because of his alcoholism. In 1877 she married David Nation, a lawyer, journalist, and minister, who divorced her in 1901 on the grounds of desertion.
Carry Nation entered the temperance movement in 1890, when a U.S. Supreme Court decision in favour of the importation and sale of liquor in “original packages” from other states weakened the prohibition laws of Kansas, where she was living. In her view, the illegality of the saloons flourishing in that state meant that anyone could destroy them with impunity. Alone or accompanied by hymn-singing women, Nation, who was typically dressed in stark black-and-white clothing, would march into a saloon and proceed to sing, pray, hurl biblical-sounding vituperations, and smash the bar fixtures and stock with a hatchet. At one point, her fervour led her to invade the governor’s chambers at Topeka. Jailed many times, she paid her fines from lecture tour fees and sales of souvenir hatchets, at times earning as much as $300 per week. She herself survived numerous physical assaults.
Nation published a few short-lived newsletters—called variously The Smasher’s Mail, The Hatchet, and the Home Defender—and her autobiography, The Use and Need of the Life of Carry A. Nation, in 1904 (rev. ed., 2006). Her “hatchetation” period was brief but brought her national notoriety. She was for a time much in demand as a temperance lecturer; she also railed against fraternal orders, tobacco, foreign foods, corsets, skirts of improper length, and mildly pornographic art of the sort found in some barrooms of the time. She was an advocate of woman suffrage. Later she appeared in vaudeville, at Coney Island, New York, and briefly in 1903 in Hatchetation, an adaptation of T.S. Arthur’s Ten Nights in a Bar-Room: And What I Saw There (1854). Despite her campaign, the enactment in 1919 of national prohibition was largely the result of the efforts of more conventional reformers, who had been reluctant to support her.
If you’re curious if her first name is “Carry” or “Carrie,” it’s actually both. “The spelling of her first name varies; both ‘Carrie’ and ‘Carry’ are considered correct. Official records say ‘Carrie,’ which Nation used for most of her life; the name ‘Carry’ was used by her father in the family Bible. Upon beginning her campaign against liquor in the early 20th century, she adopted the name ‘Carry A. Nation,’ saying it meant ‘Carry A Nation for Prohibition.’ After gaining notoriety, Carrie officially registered ‘Carry’ as a trademark.”
Today is the birthday of Gustave Philip Gottlieb “Colonel” Pabst (November 25, 1866-May 29, 1943). He was the oldest son of Frederick Pabst, who founded the Pabst Brewing Co.. Along with his younger brother, Fred Jr., he was educated at a military academy and trained as a brewer at Arnold Schwarz’s United States Brewers’ Academy in New York. When his father dies in 1904, he assumed control of the brewery, becoming president of Pabst Brewing Co.
Here’s his obituary, from the Chicago Tribune, published May 30, 1943:
“Wisconsin, Its Story and Biography 1848-1913,” by Ellis Baker Usher, is mostly about Frederick Pabst, but includes a couple of paragraphs on his son Gustave:
Frederick, his son Gustave and an unnamed infant.
Last Monday, the winners of the 8th annual Brussels Beer Challenge were announced. A little over 1,650 beers were judged in 8 broad styles (Pale Ale, Dark Ale, Red Ale, Pils, Stout/Porter, White, Flavoured Beers, Specialty Beers) and then further subdivided into 83 smaller categories (lambic, abbey, chocolate beers, etc.) by 90 judges, of which I was again privileged to be one. This year the competition was held in Mons, with entries from 35 countries. After three days of judging, the awards were announced last Monday, but it took me this long to go through and reformat the winners into a list. Congratulations to all the winners!
Belgium won the most medals, with the United States coming in second. Here are the top medal winners, by country.
Medals Won by Country:
- Belgium = 76
- United States = 46
- Italy = 24
- Netherlands = 21
- China = 18
- France = 16
- Germany = 15
- Brazil = 12
- Canada = 8
- Taiwan = 5
The 2019 Brussels Beer Challenge Winners
Category 1 — Dark Ale: Abbey / Trappist Style Dubbel
Gold: AFFLIGEM DUBBEL (Brouwerij Alken-Maes; Belgium)
Silver: LA TRAPPE DUBBEL (Bierbrouwerij de Koningshoeven B.V.; Netherlands)
Bronze: STEENBRUGGE DUBBEL BRUIN (Brouwerij Palm – Swinkels Family Brewers Belgium; Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: DELIRIUM NOCTURNUM (Brouwerij L. Huyghe NV; Belgium)
Category 2 — Dark Ale: Brown Ale
Gold: BRUGSE ZOT DUBBEL Brouwerij De Halve Maan (Belgium)
Silver: LA BRUNETTE Brasserie du Renard (Belgium)
Bronze: LA GERVOISE BRUNE SAS Brasserie Etienne (France)
Certificate of Excellence: TRIPLE SECRET DES MOINES BRUNE Brasserie Goudale (France)
Category 3 — Dark Ale: Dark/Black IPA
Gold: No Award
Silver: No Award
Bronze: BLACK BUCKET Kinnegar Brewing (Ireland)
Certificate of Excellence: SABRO LASER Brasserie de la Pleine Lune (France)
Category 4 — Dark Ale: Oud Bruin (Flanders Brown Ale)
Gold: QUEUE DE CHARRUE VIEILLE BRUNE Brasserie Vanuxeem (Belgium)
Silver: LIEFMANS GOUDENBAND Duvel Moortgat (Belgium)
Bronze: WEST ODNAR Firestone Walker Brewing Company (United States)
Category 5 — Dark Ale: Strong Dark Ale
Gold: CHIMAY GRANDE RÉSERVE Bières de Chimay (Belgium)
Silver: DE POES BRUIN Brouwerij De Poes BVBA (Belgium)
Bronze: TÜBINATOR Cerveceria Principal (Chile)
Certificate of Excellence: BARLEY WINE BRUNE MILLÉSIME 2017 Cap d’Ona (France)
Certificate of Excellence: LEFORT Brouwerij Omer Vander Ghinste (Belgium)
Category 6 — Flavoured Beer: Chocolate
Gold: No Award
Silver: No Award
Bronze: NOI CIOCCOLATO Noi Cervejaria (Brazil)
Category 7 — Flavoured Beer: Coffee
Gold: MACONDO COFFEE STOUT Cervecería BBC (Colombia)
Silver: BRIGADEIRO Jack’s Abby Brewing (United States)
Bronze: FOXTAIL DOUBLE STOUT Hourglass Brewing (United States)
Certificate of Excellence: PURPLE SAISON 18 Brewery (China)
Category 8 — Flavoured Beer: Field Beer
Gold: No Award
Silver: No Award
Bronze: No Award
Certificate of Excellence: TOMATO GOSE NBeer Craft Brewing Co. (China)
Category 9 — Flavoured Beer: Fruit Beer
Gold: AMBAR IMPERIAL CITRUS La Zaragozana S.A. (Spain)
Silver: MANGO GOSE NBeer Craft Brewing Co. (China)
Bronze: LILLE RØDE Lindheim Ølkompani (Norway)
Certificate of Excellence: NIUBIC SOUR NBeer Craft Brewing Co. (China)
Certificate of Excellence: RODENBACH ALEXANDER Brouwerij Rodenbach – Swinkels Family Brewers Belgium (Belgium)
Category 10 — Flavoured Beer: Herb & Spice
Gold: SUPER 8 SAISON Brouwerij Haacht (Belgium)
Silver: IJZERHARD IPA Oproer (Netherlands)
Bronze: LOHN BIER CARVOEIRA Lohn Bier (Brazil)
Bronze: BAMBERG HABANERO RAUCHBIER Cervejaria Bamberg (Brazil)
Category 11 — Flavoured Beer: Honey Beer
Gold: BIÈRE DE MIEL Brasserie Dupont (Belgium)
Silver: MAJA HONEY ALE Jeb sas di Bau’ Chiara & C (Italy)
Bronze: MEXICAN HONEY Indeed Brewing Company (United States)
Certificate of Excellence: MAJA WINTER EDITION HONEY ALE Jeb sas di Bau’ Chiara & C (Italy)
Category 12 — Flavoured Beer: Old Style Fruit-Lambic
Gold: OLD KRIEK CUVÉE RENÉ Lindemans Brewery (Belgium)
Silver: OUDE KRIEK OUD BEERSEL Oud Beersel BVBA (Belgium)
Bronze: OUDE QUETSCHE TILQUIN À L’ANCIENNE Gueuzerie Tilquin S.A. (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: OUDE KRIEK BOON Brouwerij Boon (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: SELVA SOUR Birra dell’Eremo (Italy)
Category 13 — Flavoured Beer: Pumpkin Ale
Gold: BRANDY BARREL-AGED IMPERIAL PUMPKIN ALE Lakefront Brewery (United States)
Silver: No Award
Bronze: PUMPKIN ALE Low land Brewery di Elettromeccanica di Nicola Soldani (Italy)
Category 14 — Flavoured Beer: Russian Imperial Stout Barrel Or Oaked Aged
Gold: BOURBON BARREL AGED DARK STAR Fremont Brewing (United States)
Silver: FATHER OF ALL TSUNAMIS Pelican Brewing Company (United States)
Bronze: BLACK BUTTE XXXI Deschutes Brewery (United States)
Certificate of Excellence: BLACK CURRANT BARREL AGED IMPARIAL STOUT Suzhou City Guangtu Brewing Co. (China)
Category 15 — Flavoured Beer: Smoked Beer
Gold: OTHMAR RAUCH Ootmarsummer Bierbrouwerij Heupink & Co (Netherlands)
Silver: BUCKSKIN RAUCHBIER Buckskin, King Car Group (Taiwan)
Bronze: THE WALL KAMALEON RAUCH Evo Srl (Italy)
Category 16 — Flavoured Beer: Sweet/Milk Stout
Gold: No Award
Silver: STEEL TOE STOUT Ska Brewing Company (United States)
Bronze: LOCAL LEGEND Deep Ellum Brewing Company (United States)
Bronze: SAMUEL ADAMS CREAM STOUT Boston Beer Company (United States)
Certificate of Excellence: KOFI Brasserie Atrium S.A. (Belgium)
Category 17 — Flavoured Beer: Wood/Barrel Aged (Less Than 10% ABV)
Gold: MOLE MERKIN Firestone Walker Brewing Company (United States)
Silver: RODENBACH VINTAGE Brouwerij Rodenbach – Swinkels Family Brewers Belgium (Belgium)
Bronze: BRAVO Cervejaria Backer (Brazil)
Certificate of Excellence: RESERVA SOUR WOOD Cervejaria Backer (Brazil)
Category 18 — Flavoured Beer: Wood/Barrel Aged Higher Than 10% ABV)
Gold: DUVEL BARREL AGED Duvel Moortgat (Belgium)
Silver: BAKERY: COCONUT MACAROON The Bruery (United States)
Silver: SILLY SCOTCH PINOT BARREL AGED Brasserie de Silly (Belgium)
Bronze: No Award
Certificate of Excellence: BARLEY WINE MYSTÈRE MILLÉSIME 2017 Cap d’Ona (France)
Category 19 — Lager: American-Style Pilsner
Gold: No Award
Silver: LAGER Firestone Walker Brewing Company (United States)
Bronze: TRUE LOVE Champion Brewing Company (United States)
Category 20 — Lager: Bohemian-Style Pilsner
Gold: BERNARD CELEBRATION LAGER Rodinný Pivovar Bernard a.s. (Czech Republic)
Silver: PRIMÁTOR ANTONÍN Primátor A.s. (Czech Republic)
Bronze: BITTA VON TRESEN Muttermilch – Vienna Brewery (Austria)
Category 21 — Lager: Dark/Dunkel (Including Schwarzbier)
Gold: No Award
Silver: No Award
Bronze: CERNOVAR CERNÉ Tradicní Pivovar v Rakovníku, a.s. (Czech Republic)
Certificate of Excellence: SCHWARZBIER 4 Pines Brewing Company (Australia)
Category 22 — Lager: German-Style Dunkel Bock/Doppelbock
Gold: MAESTRA DUNKEL Mahou San Miguel (Spain)
Silver: BROTAS BEER BOCK Brotas Beer Industria de Bebidas LTDA (Brazil)
Bronze: WEYERMANN BAMBERGER HOFBRÄU EXQUISATOR Mich. Weyermann GmbH & Co. KG (Germany)
Certificate of Excellence: LINDEBOOM HERFSTBOCK Lindeboom Bierbrouwerij B.V. (Netherlands)
Category 23 — Lager: German-Style Eisbock
Gold: No Award
Silver: No Award
Bronze: IJSBOK SNAB Bierbrouwers (Netherlands)
Category 24 — Lager: German-Style Helles-/MaiBock/Doppelbock
Gold: BUCKSKIN HELLER BOCK Buckskin, King Car Group (Taiwan)
Silver: WOW Soralama’ SRL (Italy)
Bronze: BOCK Birrificio Bradipongo S.r.l. (Italy)
Bronze: MAESTRA DOBLE LÚPULO Mahou San Miguel (Spain)
Category 25 — Lager: German-Style Märzen
Gold: SAMUEL ADAMS OCTOBERFEST Boston Beer Company (United States)
Silver: OKTOBERFEST Ninkasi Fabriques (France)
Bronze: OKTOBERFEST STYLE pFriem Family Brewers (United States)
Category 26 — Lager: German-Style Pilsner
Gold: KIRISHIMA BEER PILSNER Kirishima Shuzo Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Silver: BUCKSKIN GERMAN PILSNER Buckskin, King Car Group (Taiwan)
Bronze: KETTERER PILS Familienbrauerei M. Ketterer GmbH & Co. KG (Germany)
Certificate of Excellence: PILS2 Birrificio Otus Srl (Italy)
Category 27 — Lager: Helles
Gold: BAYREUTHER HELL Bayreuther Bierbrauerei AG (Germany)
Gold: WALDHAUS SPEZIAL GOLD Privatbrauerei Waldhaus Joh. Schmid GmbH (Germany)
Silver: BUCKSKIN MUNICH HELLES Buckskin, King Car Group (Taiwan)
Category 28 — Lager: Hoppy Lager
Gold: AMERICAN MAGUT Birrificio Lambrate (Italy)
Gold: JOPEN CRAFT PILSENER Jopen BV (Netherlands)
Silver: SUPER CADIX Antwerpse Brouw Compagnie (Belgium)
Bronze: NORTH ARCTIC LAGER Tornion Panimo Oy (Finland)
Certificate of Excellence: LAGER DES ÉTOILES Brasserie de la Pleine Lune (France)
Category 29 — Lager: International Style Pilsner
Gold: ALFA EDEL PILS Meens Brouwerij BV (Netherlands)
Silver: LISA Birra del Borgo (Italy)
Bronze: CORNELISSEN LUXURY LAGER Brouwerij Cornelissen (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: CASTEL Brasimba (Congo, The Democratic Republic Of The)
Category 30 — Lager: Light Lager
Gold: UTICA CLUB PILSENER Saranac Brewery / FX Matt Brewing Co. (United States)
Silver: YANJING U8 Beijing Yanjing Brewery Co.,Ltd. (China)
Bronze: PEARL RIVER DRAFT BEER Guangzhou Zhujiang Browery CO., LTD. (China)
Category 31 — Lager: Vienna Lager
Gold: KIRISHIMA BEER AMBER Kirishima Shuzo Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Silver: LAGUNA BAJA North Coast Brewing Co Inc (United States)
Bronze: No Award
Category 32 — Pale&Amber Ale: (Belgian Style) Tripel
Gold: ST. BERNARDUS TRIPEL St. Bernardus Brouwerij (Belgium)
Silver: DELIRIUM TREMENS Brouwerij L. Huyghe NV (Belgium)
Bronze: GOUDEN CAROLUS TRIPEL Brouwerij Het Anker (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: BROEDER JACOB TRIPEL Brouwerij Broeder Jacob (Belgium)
Category 33 — Pale&Amber Ale: Abbey / Trappist Style Blond
Gold: TER DOLEN BLOND Brouwerij Ter Dolen (Belgium)
Silver: ST-FEUILLIEN BLONDE Brasserie St-Feuillien (Belgium)
Bronze: AFFLIGEM BLOND Brouwerij Alken-Maes (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: LA TRAPPE BLOND Bierbrouwerij de Koningshoeven B.V. (Netherlands)
Category 34 — Pale&Amber Ale: Altbier
Gold: BAMBERG ALTBIER Cervejaria Bamberg (Brazil)
Silver: VENLOOSCH ALT Lindeboom Bierbrouwerij B.V. (Netherlands)
Bronze: SAMUEL ADAMS BOSTON ALE Boston Beer Company (United States)
Category 35 — Pale&Amber Ale: Amber
Gold: 1410 SNAB Bierbrouwers (Netherlands)
Silver: OBAA TWO Obaa Sprl (Belgium)
Bronze: CHIPIE Archibald Microbrasserie (Canada)
Bronze: LA BONNE AVENTURE Microbrasserie Pit Caribou (Canada)
Category 36 — Pale&Amber Ale: American IPA (Higher Than 6.5 ABV)
Gold: LUSH Fremont Brewing (United States)
Silver: WEEKEND VIBES Coronado Brewing (United States)
Bronze: IPA pFriem Family Brewers (United States)
Certificate of Excellence: MELVIN IPA Melvin Brewing (United States)
Category 37 — Pale&Amber Ale: American IPA (Less Than 6.5 ABV)
Gold: STAY WEST IPA Breakside Brewery & Taproom (United States)
Gold: WANDERLUST IPA Breakside Brewery & Taproom (United States)
Bronze: BIRD OF PREY Uiltje Brewing Company (Netherlands)
Certificate of Excellence: FUMO IPA Chengdu Fengshou Craft Beer Company, Ltd (China)
Category 38 — Pale&Amber Ale: American Pale Ale
Gold: VOLCELEST OATMEAL PALE ALE Brasserie de la Vallee de Chevreuse (France)
Silver: HOP.E Birra Mastino (Italy)
Bronze: RUDE Birrificio Artigianale La Villana (Italy)
Certificate of Excellence: LEISURE LAGOON Coronado Brewing (United States)
Category 39 — Pale&Amber Ale: Belgian Style IPA
Gold: DELIRIUM ARGENTUM Brouwerij L. Huyghe NV (Belgium)
Silver: No Award
Bronze: BAPTIST IPA Brouwerij Van Steenberge (Belgium)
Bronze: JACK’S PRECIOUS IPA Brouwerij The Musketeers (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: BSL006 Brasserie Saint-Lazare SA (Belgium)
Category 40 — Pale&Amber Ale: Best Bitter
Gold: BAMBERG SEPULTURA ALE Cervejaria Bamberg (Brazil)
Silver: SEA FURY Sharps Brewery (United Kingdom)
Bronze: AMBROSIA Ambrosia e.U. (Austria)
Category 41 — Pale&Amber Ale: Bières De Garde Ambrée
Gold: SILLY SAISON Brasserie de Silly (Belgium)
Silver: BRASSEURS SAVOYARDS AMBRÉE Les Brasseurs Savoyards (France)
Bronze: SINT IDESBALD ROUSSE Brouwerij L. Huyghe NV (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: LA TRAPPE ISID’OR Bierbrouwerij de Koningshoeven B.V. (Netherlands)
Category 42 — Pale&Amber Ale: Bitter
Gold: No Award
Silver: No Award
Bronze: No Award
Certificate of Excellence: KIRKE Corsaire Microbrasserie (Canada)
Category 43 — Pale&Amber Ale: Bitter Blond/Golden Ale
Gold: TER DOLEN ARMAND Brouwerij Ter Dolen (Belgium)
Silver: MALHEUR 6 Brouwerij Malheur (Belgium)
Bronze: REMI Brouwerij De Bock (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: HOUPPE Brasserie Artisanale de Namur (Belgium)
Category 44 — Pale&Amber Ale: Double Saison
Gold: SAISON DUPONT DRY HOP Brasserie Dupont (Belgium)
Silver: SAISON DU SABLIER Hourglass Brewing (United States)
Bronze: LA GUILLOTINE Brouwerij L. Huyghe NV (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: AUBEOLE D’ESTINNES Marie-Jeanne Nolf (Belgium)
Category 45 — Pale&Amber Ale: English IPA
Gold: MARTIN’S DOUBLE IPA 55 John Martin ‘s (Belgium)
Silver: CIBOIRE Archibald Microbrasserie (Canada)
Bronze: BURTON ENGLISH IPA Juguetes Perdidos Cerveza Artesanal (Argentina)
Bronze: SAN BLAS Lord Chambray LTD (Malta)
Category 46 — Pale&Amber Ale: Imperial IPA
Gold: L’!! (DOUBLE EXCLAMATION) Noire et Blanche Inc. (Canada)
Silver: KNOTTY DOUBLE IPA Three Weavers Brewing, Co. (United States)
Bronze: 2×4 DOUBLE IPA Melvin Brewing (United States)
Certificate of Excellence: BURIED IN HOPS Anarchy Brew Co. (United Kingdom)
Certificate of Excellence: RETREAT (THIS IS A HAZY DOUBLE IPA) The Bruery (United States)
Category 47 — Pale&Amber Ale: Kölsch
Gold: BUCKSKIN KÖLSCH Buckskin, King Car Group (Taiwan)
Silver: No Award
Bronze: DRAUGHT 4 Pines Brewing Company (Australia)
Category 48 — Pale&Amber Ale: Light Bitter Blond/Golden Ale
Gold: STRANDGAPER Scheldebrouwerij BVBA (Belgium)
Silver: KOMPEL BOVENGRONDS Brouwerij Kompel (Belgium)
Bronze: KIWANDA CREAM ALE Pelican Brewing Company (United States)
Certificate of Excellence: HERKENRODE CISTER Brouwerij Cornelissen (Belgium)
Category 49 — Pale&Amber Ale: Modern Saison
Gold: LA SAISON DU TRACTEUR Microbrasserie Le Trou du diable (Canada)
Silver: PACIFICA Birrificio Artigianale La Villana (Italy)
Bronze: NOBLESSE OBLIGE Brasserie au Baron (France)
Certificate of Excellence: CLASSIC Blackberry Farm Brewery (United States)
Category 50 — Pale&Amber Ale: New England IPA
Gold: HAZEALICIOUS Reuben’s Brews (United States)
Silver: HAZY LITTLE THING Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. (United States)
Bronze: LIUXI HAZY IPA Witchcraft Brewery (China)
Bronze: WHAT ROUGH BEAST Breakside Brewery & Taproom (United States)
Category 51 — Pale&Amber Ale: Pacific IPA
Gold: No Award
Silver: No Award
Bronze: BEAK BENDER HOPPINATED INDIA PALE ALE Pelican Brewing Company (United States)
Certificate of Excellence: TKO IPA Boxing Cat Brewery (China)
Category 52 — Pale&Amber Ale: Session IPA
Gold: PALM SESSION IPA Brouwerij Palm – Swinkels Family Brewers Belgium (Belgium)
Silver: BE ADORABLE Mister B Brewery (Italy)
Bronze: 24-JUIL Oproer (Netherlands)
Certificate of Excellence: SUMMER SESSION TROPICAL IPA Brouwerij Hoop (Netherlands)
Category 53 — Pale&Amber Ale: Strong Blonde/Golden Ale
Gold: OMER. TRADITIONAL BLOND Brouwerij Omer Vander Ghinste (Belgium)
Silver: OMMEGANG Brouwerij Haacht (Belgium)
Bronze: HAPKIN Brouwerij Alken-Maes (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: ST-FEUILLIEN GRAND CRU Brasserie St-Feuillien (Belgium)
Category 54 — Pale&Amber Ale: Strong/Extra Special Bitter
Gold: SAWTOOTH ALE Left Hand Brewing Company (United States)
Silver: GATSBY Birrificio Artigianale La Villana (Italy)
Bronze: BRAUFACTUM PALOR Die Internationale Brau-Manufacturen GmbH (Germany)
Certificate of Excellence: MONSERRATE ROJA Cervecería BBC (Colombia)
Category 55 — Pale&Amber Ale: Traditional Saison
Gold: SAISON AVENA Brasserie Deseveaux (Belgium)
Silver: SAISON D’EPEAUTRE Scrl Brasserie De Blaugies (Belgium)
Bronze: SAISON 1900 Brasserie Lefebvre (Belgium)
Category 56 — Red Ale: American Red Ale
Gold: POTALA TIBETAN RED ALE NBeer Craft Brewing Co. (China)
Silver: KABREW GYEONGBOKGUNG Kabrew (South Korea)
Bronze: RED EYES Pravda Beer Theatre (Ukraine)
Category 57 — Red Ale: Irish Red Ale
Gold: No Award
Silver: RED & GO Birrificio Otus Srl (Italy)
Bronze: BROTAS BEER RED ALE Brotas Beer Industria de Bebidas LTDA (Brazil)
Category 58— Red Ale: Oud Rood (Flanders Red Ale)
Gold: RODENBACH GRAND CRU Brouwerij Rodenbach – Swinkels Family Brewers Belgium (Belgium)
Silver: VARVAR BREW CARMINE Varvar Brew (Ukraine)
Bronze: DUCHESSE DE BOURGOGNE Brouwerij Verhaeghe Vichte (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: OUD BRUNELLO Birrificio del Ducato (Italy)
Category 59 — Speciality Beer: Alcohol-Free And Low-Alcohol Beers
Gold: WANDERLUST Van Moll Craft Beer (Netherlands)
Silver: MAISEL & FRIENDS ALKOHOLFREI Brauerei Gebr. Maisel (Germany)
Bronze: BROWN ALE Big Drop (United Kingdom)
Bronze: STOUT Big Drop (United Kingdom)
Certificate of Excellence: FREAK KRIEK ZERO POINT THREE FEEL FREE MERRY CHERRY BEER The Flying Dutchman Nomad Brewing Company (Belgium)
Category 60 — Speciality Beer: Barley Wine
Gold: WEYERMANN NR. 10 BARLEY WINE Mich. Weyermann GmbH & Co. KG (Germany)
Silver: BARLEY WHAT? Brasserie Historique de l’Abbaye du Cateau (France)
Bronze: SCHWARZBRÄU AGED BOCK Schwarzbräu GmbH (Germany)
Certificate of Excellence: BREW 3000 Fremont Brewing (United States)
Category 61 — Speciality Beer: Brut Beer
Gold: MALHEUR BIÈRE BRUT Brouwerij Malheur (Belgium)
Silver: BRUT IPA Ninkasi Fabriques (France)
Bronze: DAME JEANNE “BRUT SUR LIE” Dame Jeanne (Belgium)
Category 62 — Speciality Beer: Gluten Free
Gold: No Award
Silver: GRISETTE TRIPLE BIO GLUTEN FREE Brasserie St-Feuillien (Belgium)
Bronze: CAULIER BLONDE GLUTEN FREE Brasserie 28 (Belgium)
Category 63 — Speciality Beer: Hybrid
Gold: No Award
Silver: NOORDTSINGLE Brouwerij Noordt (Netherlands)
Bronze: No Award
Category 64 — Speciality Beer: Old Style Gueuze-Lambic
Gold: OLD GUEUZE CUVÉE RENÉ Lindemans Brewery (Belgium)
Silver: OUDE GEUZE VANDERVELDEN 137 Oud Beersel BVBA (Belgium)
Bronze: OUDE GEUZE BOON BLACK LABEL EDITION N°4 Brouwerij Boon (Belgium)
Bronze: OUDE GEUZE BRETT ELLE Lambiek Fabriek VOF (Belgium)
Category 65 — Speciality Beer: Other Sour Ale
Gold: LIMOILOU BEACH Microbrasserie La Souche (Canada)
Silver: VARVAR BREW D’RYE Varvar Brew (Ukraine)
Bronze: TIMMERMANS LAMBICUS BLANCHE John Martin’s (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: BODEBROWN BRUT SOUR BLANC Cervejaria Bodebrown (Brazil)
Category 66 — Speciality Beer: Speciality Beer (Higher Than 7 ABV)
Gold: DRUIF BLANC pFriem Family Brewers (United States)
Silver: DANDAO Chengdu Fengshou Craft Beer Company, Ltd (China)
Silver: GOUDALE Brasserie Goudale (France)
Bronze: ROTTEN SKULL PRUNE IMPERIAL STOUT Brasserie de la Vallee de Chevreuse (France)
Certificate of Excellence: BODEBROWN – CAVE COLINAS DE PEDRAS BLACK BRUT METODO ORIGINALE Cervejaria Bodebrown (Brazil)
Category 67 — Speciality Beer: Speciality Beer (Less Than 7 ABV)
Gold: PRUIM pFriem Family Brewers (United States)
Silver: VIVEN CHAMPAGNER WEISSE Brouwerij Viven (Belgium)
Bronze: BARREN SHOWER CHAMPAGNE IPA NBeer Craft Brewing Co. (China)
Certificate of Excellence: ENTRE NOUS BLONDE Brasserie de Hosdent (Belgium)
Category 68 — Speciality Beer: Speciality Beer: Italian Style Grape Ale
Gold: LIMES Brùton (Italy)
Silver: L’EQUILIBRISTA Birra del Borgo (Italy)
Bronze: ROÈ Birrificio Sagrin (Italy)
Certificate of Excellence: BODEBROWN LA GRISETTE SUPÉRIOR Cervejaria Bodebrown (Brazil)
Category 69 — Speciality Beer: Winter Ales
Gold: PIETRA BRASSIN D’HIVER Brasserie Pietra (France)
Silver: CUVÉE DE NOËL Juguetes Perdidos Cerveza Artesanal (Argentina)
Silver: DELIRIUM NOËL Brouwerij L. Huyghe NV (Belgium)
Bronze: No Award
Certificate of Excellence: ROUSSE DE NOËL Cap d’Ona (France)
Category 70 — Stout/ Porter: American Stout
Gold: OBSIDIAN STOUT Deschutes Brewery (United States)
Silver: ALL BLACK Stanislaus Brewskovitch BV (Netherlands)
Silver: MORE COMPLICATED THAN YOUR GIRLFRIEND STOUT The Flying Dutchman Nomad Brewing Company (Belgium)
Bronze: No Award
Category 71 — Stout/ Porter: Baltic Porter
Gold: NISSOS 7 BEAUFORT Cyclades Microbrewery at Tinos island (Greece)
Silver: PORTER Brouwerij Noordt (Netherlands)
Bronze: SPECIAL ONE IBEER (Italy)
Category 72 — Stout/ Porter: Dry Stout
Gold: KABREW DARK ALE Kabrew (South Korea)
Silver: NITRO STOUT 4 Pines Brewing Company (Australia)
Bronze: KIRISHIMA BEER STOUT Kirishima Shuzo Co., Ltd. (Japan)
Category 73 — Stout/ Porter: Oatmeal Stout
Gold: AMBRANERA Birrificio Otus Srl (Italy)
Silver: No Award
Bronze: THE POET New Holland Brewing (United States)
Category 74 — Stout/ Porter: Porter
Gold: YANNARODDY Kinnegar Brewing (Ireland)
Silver: GASPÉSIENNE #13 Microbrasserie Pit Caribou (Canada)
Bronze: UNCINO Birrificio Artigianale La Villana (Italy)
Category 75 — Stout/ Porter: Russian Imperial Stout
Gold: RUSSIAN IMPERIAL STOUT Crooked Spider (Netherlands)
Silver: FROM SIAN TO DON Pravda Beer Theatre (Ukraine)
Bronze: RASKOLNIKOV IMPERIAL STOUT Craft Brew Riots (Russian Federation)
Certificate of Excellence: SINGULARITY Northern Light Brewery (Sweden)
Category 76 — Stout/ Porter: Stout Export
Gold: DUITS & LAURET WINTERSTOUT Brouwerij Duits & Lauret (Netherlands)
Silver: TSUNAMI STOUT Pelican Brewing Company (United States)
Bronze: ELBOW PATCHES The Virginia Beer Company (United States)
Category 77 — Wheat: Dubbel Wit/Imperial White
Gold: WITWIT 1975 sas di Nicola Grande e C (Italy)
Silver: No Award
Bronze: No Award
Category 78 — Wheat: Dunkel Weizen
Gold: TUMMA HEILI Panimo Honkavuori (Finland)
Silver: SCHWARZBRÄU WEISSBIER DUNKEL Schwarzbräu GmbH (Germany)
Bronze: WALDHAUS SCHWARZWALD WEISSE DUNKEL Privatbrauerei Waldhaus Joh. Schmid GmbH (Germany)
Category 79 — Wheat: Dunkel Weizen(Doppel)Bock
Gold: TAP6 AVENTINUS Schneider Weisse G. Schneider & Sohn GmbH (Germany)
Silver: No Award
Bronze: No Award
Category 80 — Wheat: Gose
Gold: SALT SHAKER GOSE Suzhou City Guangtu Brewing Co., Ltd (China)
Silver: No Award
Bronze: BEIJING GOSE MODERN NBeer Craft Brewing Co. (China)
Category 81 — Wheat: Weizen
Gold: 撕BEER WEIZEN Urbrew (China) Craft Beer Co., Ltd. (China)
Silver: TAP7 ORIGINAL Schneider Weisse G. Schneider & Sohn GmbH (Germany)
Bronze: MAISEL’S WEISSE ORIGINAL Brauerei Gebr. Maisel (Germany)
Certificate of Excellence: SCHWARZBRÄU WEISSBIER HELL Schwarzbräu GmbH (Germany)
Certificate of Excellence: WEISSBIER HELL Brauerei M.C. Wieninger (Germany)
Category 82 — Wheat: White IPA/Hoppy Weizen
Gold: NIUBI WHEAT NBeer Craft Brewing Co. (China)
Silver: No Award
Bronze: BROMEO HOPPY WHEAT Boxing Cat Brewery (China)
Certificate of Excellence: LAGUNITAS LITTLE SUMPIN’ SUMPIN’ Heineken Spain (United States)
Category 83 — Wheat: Witbier
Gold: BLANCHE DE NAMUR Brasserie du Bocq (Belgium)
Silver: HOEGAARDEN WHITE AB Inbev Hoegaarden (Belgium)
Bronze: VEDETT EXTRA WHITE Duvel Moortgat (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: BLANCHE DE THINES Belgo Sapiens Brewers / Brasserie Ceres Belgique SPRL (Belgium)
Certificate of Excellence: LOWLANDER WHITE ALE Lowlander Beer Co. (Netherlands)
The Comac Trophy: Best in Show
CHIMAY GRANDE RÉSERVE Bières de Chimay (Belgium)
Best American Beer
American Revelation — Fermentis Trophy
BOURBON BARREL AGED DARK STAR Fremont Brewing (United States)
Best Belgian Beer
TER DOLEN BLOND Brouwerij Ter Dolen (Belgium)
Best Chinese Beer
POTALA TIBETAN RED ALE NBeer Craft Brewing Co. (China)
Best Dutch Beer
WANDERLUST Van Moll Craft Beer (The Netherlands)
Best French Beer
VOLCELEST OATMEAL PALE ALE Brasserie de la Vallee de Chevreuse (France)
Best Italian Beer
AMERICAN MAGUT Birrificio Lambrate (Italy)
Sunday’s ad is for the Munich Oktoberfest, from 2013, though it’s not the official poster for that year. This one was the runner-up from that year’s contest to choose the official poster. From the late 1800s until the 1970s, poster art really came into its own, and in Europe a lot of really cool posters, many of them for breweries, were produced. This poster is for the Munich Oktoberfest, which began September 21 and runs through October 6. Originally I thought from now until then I’d post posters from the German folk festival, but now that Oktoberfest is over I think I’ll just keep going. From what I can tell, official Oktoberfest posters started being produced each year beginning in 1952. This poster was created by German artists Kathrin Schiebler and Zuzana Havellova.
Today is the birthday of John Leonard Barnitz (November 24, 1677-November 19, 1749). He was born in Falkenstein, Upper Palatinate, Bavaria, Germany. Although the exact date is uncertain, Barnitz moved his family to York, Pennsylvania in or before 1733. He established two breweries in Pennsylvania (in York and Hanover) and then, along with his son Elias Daniel Barnitz, founded the first brewery in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1748. When John Leonard dies a year later, his son continued the brewery, but changed the name from the John Leonard Barnitz & Elias Daniel Barnitz Brewery to the Elias Daniel Barnitz Brewery. In 1780, he appears to have sold it and the brewery proceeded to go through no less than twenty name changes, and multiple ownership changes, and by 1888 was known as the Globe Brewery, the name that it continued under until 1963, when it closed for good.
This biography of Barnitz is from “The Barnitz Family,” by Robert M. Torrence, published in 1961:
John Leonard Barnitz is assumed to have been born in Falkenstein, Germany, November 24, 1677 (tombstone), because his son, John George Charles (Carl) Barnitz, stated in his own will that he was born there in 1722, so his father must have been there too. He died in York, Pa., November 19, 1749 and was buried in the Christ Lutheran Churchyard on South George Street. His remains must have been moved twice to make room for two new churches, during which his stone was broken and his J.L. letters were lost. Someone, attempting to make it right, just cut on it N.N .—no name. [The first Lutheran Church in York was built of logs in 1744 and was small. In 1760-61, this was replaced by a new church, forty feet by sixty-five, which lasted until 1812. The present Christ Lutheran Church was finished in 1814. They were all on the same location.] The date of his arrival is not of record in the Pennsylvania Archives or in any other standard publication consulted by the compiler. Evidently, he was well provided with ample funds and a knowledge of brewing, a business in which he was conspicuously successful, and he was correspondingly generous in sharing it with the Lutheran churches wherever he went. His first brewery was in York, the second in Hanover, Pa., and the third in Baltimore, Md., where he and his son, Elias Daniel Barnitz, bought Lot No. 27 from Charles Carroll of Annapolis, Md. Since his first wife
was not mentioned in his will, it is assumed that she died in Germany. His second wife was the widow of Frederick Gelwick (sic), who had a son by her first marriage, John Frederick Gelwick, born in 1733; married Maria Dorothea Uler; became York County Treasurer in 1756, succeeding Colonel Robert McPherson.
He was the first individual to be baptized in the Evangelical Lutheran Church on-the-Conowago “when Lenhart Barnitz and Frederick Gel wicks (sic) were the first Elders.”
And this account is from “Zion Church and Baltimore’s First Brewer,” by Dr. Eric W. Gritsch:
Zion Church can claim the first brewer of Baltimore Town, Elias Daniel Barnitz, as a founding member our congregation. Along with his father John, they established their brewery in 1748. John was born in Falkenstein in the Palatinate of Germany on November 24, 1677, arriving in America in 1732 at the age of 55. In Germany he had been an apprentice brewer. Elias Daniel was also born in Falkenstein, on October 24, 1715. After residing in York County, Pennsylvania, John arrived in Baltimore Town in 1748 at the age of 71. He and his son found the Baltimore settlement surrounded by a stockade fence, erected in 1746. Lost to history is the purpose of the stockade, but it was said to provide protection from hostile Native Americans west of the town. A more plausible reason for the fence was to keep wandering hogs and other livestock from wandering into the town. The fence was eventually dismantled and used for kindling after several cold winters.
The Barnitz brewery was gratefully welcomed by Baltimore’s early inhabitants, about 30 families in all. The brewery was viewed as both a source of liquid refreshment and impetus to attract other businesses to the nascent settlement, then just 22 years old. The original brewery was located at the southwest corner of Baltimore and Hanover Streets, today the entrance to Hopkins Plaza and cater-corner to the Lord Baltimore Hotel. This was one of the original lots of Baltimore Town, purchased from Charles Carroll, Sr. He was father of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
To place this brewery in historical context, George II was King of England and Sovereign Lord of the Province of Maryland. Samuel Ogle was Governor of Maryland, and George Washington was just a lad of sixteen. Tobacco was used as currency.
Unfortunately, the elder Barnitz died on November 19, 1749, surviving his brewery but for one year. The brewery was then passed on to Elias Daniel. Although no description of Baltimore Town’s first brewery exists, it was assumed to be diminutive in size and small in output, one or two stories in construction and employing no more than three workers. Equipment was likely crude, consisting of copper cookers, fermenting tubs and racking for casks and kegs. The entire brewing process was done by manual labor. The water supply was drawn from a well. The “ageing” period was likely a short one as there was no cooling cellar to lager the beer. Records indicate beer was produced at this location until about 1815, with the building itself lasting over 100 years, until 1853.
And this is from German Marylanders:
The first Brewery (Southeast Corner Conway and Hanover Streets) was erected in 1748 by Barnitz (Leonard and Samuel) Brothers. John Leonard Barnitz was a native of Falkenstien, Germany, where he learned his craft. The building was situated on the Northeast Corner of Hanover and Conway Streets (later identified as 327 S. Hanover Street-some references also used the S.W. corner of Baltimore and Hanover Sts.). Upon John Leonard’s death, his son Elias Daniel took over. The founders named it “Washington Brewery,” but only brewed Ale, Porter and Brown Stout. It was in the same location as the magnificent Malthouse of Messrs. Wehr, Hobelmann & Gottlieb. (see profile). It was taken over in 1820 by Peter Gloninger and he operated it for 7 years and sold it to Samuel Lucas. While under the control of Lucas, it became the second largest brewery. Lucas died in 1856. It was then sold to Francis Dandelet (a Frenchman who died in 1878). The name was changed to the Baltimore Brewery. In 1876 it was changed again when John Butterfield with his son-in-law, Frederick Gottlieb, operated the brewery.
Globe Brewery stayed open during prohibition which gave it an ‘edge’ when prohibition ended. They made ‘near beer’ called Arrow Special during prohibition. At midnight on April 7, 1933, they served ‘real beer’ at the Rennert Hotel. Globe also survived both trusts, of which they belonged to both the Maryland Brewing Company and the Gottlieb, Bauernschmidt, Straus Co.
In 1963, they stopped brewing in Baltimore and moved their beer making to their Cumberland operations, the Cumberland Brewing Company and in 1965 the building was razed to make room for a parking lot.
Today is the birthday of Frederick Edward John Miller (November 24, 1824-May 11, 1888). He was originally born as Friedrich Eduard Johannes Müller in Württemberg, Germany. He learned the brewing business in Germany at Sigmaringen, and moved the U.S. to found the Miller Brewing Company by buying the Plank Road Brewery in 1855, when he was 31. For a time it was known as the Fred Miller Brewing Co., but later dropped Fred’s name to become the Miller Brewing Co.
Here’s a short biography of Miller:
Born in Germany in 1824, Frederick Miller learned the art of brewing from his uncle in France. After working through the ranks of his uncle’s brewery, Miller leased the royal Hohenzollern brewery at Sigmaringen, Germany, and brewed beer under a royal license until political unrest caused him to emigrate to the United States in 1854. Miller arrived in Milwaukee in 1855 and purchased the Plank-Road Brewery, located several miles west of the city. Miller led the company for thirty-five years, pursuing a policy of aggressive expansion and modernization. After his death in 1888, Miller’s sons took over management of the company.
Here’s his obituary, from the Archdiocese of Milwaukee Catholic Cemeteries:
Miller, Fredrick Edward John, November 24, 1824 – June 11,1888, Began Miller Brewing Company in Milwaukee, WI, the second largest brewer in the United States. Fredrick Miller came from a family composed of German politicians, scholars and business owners. He began to learn the craft of brewing beer in Germany. At the age of 14, Miller was sent to France for seven years to study Latin, French and English. While residing in Europe, he visited his uncle in Nancy, France. His uncle was a brewer and Fredrick Miller decided to continue to learn the business of brewing.
Fredrick Miller came to Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1855. He brought his passion for beer and business expertise with him. With $8,000 in gold from Germany, Miller opened the Plank Road Brewery, a brewery originally started by Fredrick Charles Best that was abandoned in 1854.
Fredrick Miller was married to Josephine Miller on June 7, 1853, before they immigrated to America. Josephine and Fredrick Miller had six children together. Most of the children died during infancy. In April 1860, Josephine died. She left Fredrick with 2-year-old daughter, Louisa. When Louisa was 16, she too died of tuberculosis.
Miller was remarried in 1860 to Lisette Gross and they had several children who also died during infancy and five who survived: Ernst, Emil, Fred, Clara and Elise.
When Fredrick Miller brewed his first barrel of beer in America, he spoke passionately about “Quality, Uncompromising and Unchanging.” It was his slogan, mission and vision for the company. His statement and vision still lives on today.
Through the Great Depression, Prohibition, and two World Wars, Miller Brewing Company has preserved and grown.
Fredrick Miller died of cancer on June 11, 1888; interment in Cavalry Cemetery, Wauwatosa, WI.
This account of the early Miller brewery is from Encyclopedia.com:
Between the establishment of the Miller Brewing Company in 1855 and the death of its founder in 1888, the firm’s annual productive capacity increased from 300 barrels to 80,000 barrels of beer. This impressive growth has continued to the present day: Miller now operates six breweries, five can manufacturing plants, four distributorships, a glass bottle production facility, a label and fiberboard factory, and numerous gas wells. Beginning with a staff of 25, Miller now employs about 9,500 people. The company currently produces more than 40 million barrels of beer per year and is the second largest brewery in the United States.
The founder of the Miller Brewing Company, Frederick Miller, was born in Germany in 1824. As a young man he worked in the Royal Brewing Company at Sigmaringen, Hohenzollern. In 1850, at the age of 26, he emigrated to the United States. Miller wanted to start his own brewery and regarded Milwaukee as the most promising site, probably because of the large number of beer-drinking Germans living there.
In 1855 Miller bought the Plank Road Brewery from Charles Lorenz Best and his father. These two men had been slow to modernize their operation, but Miller’s innovative techniques made him successful, indeed famous, in the brewing industry. The Bests had started a “cave-system” which provided storage for beer in a cool undisturbed place for several months after brewing. Yet these caves were small and in poor condition. Miller improved upon the Best’s system: his caves were built of brick, totaled 600 feet of tunnel, and had a capacity of 12,000 barrels. Miller used these until 1906 when, due to the company’s expansion and the availability of more modern technology, refrigerator facilities were built.
After his death, Miller’s sons Ernest, Emil, and Frederick A., along with their brother-in-law Carl, assumed control of the operation which was incorporated as the Frederick Miller Brewing Company. By 1919 production had increased to 500,000 barrels, but it was halted shortly thereafter by the enactment of Prohibition. The company managed to survive by producing cereal beverages, soft drinks, and malt-related products.
Finally, this account is from a brochure prepared by the Communications Department, Corporate Affairs Division, Miller Brewing Co., in the Fall of 1991:
When Frederick Miller brewed his first barrel of beer in America in 1855, he spoke empassionately about “Quality, Uncompromising and Unchanging.” It became his slogan, his vision, his mission for the company. The statement lived then as now in the dedicated commitment of employees.
Miller did more than speak his vision. He lived it. Both in the way he operated his business and in the way he handled his personal triumphs and tragedies, Miller was steadfast in his zeal for true excellence.
A glimpse into the life of Frederick Miller is presented in this brief history, which also includes some highlights of the company over the years. While this presentation is by no means comprehensive, it provides a good overview of the founder’s life and the heritage of the Miller Brewing Company.
He dressed and acted like a Frenchman, but his “confoundedly good glass of beer” won the respect of the German community of early Milwaukee. Tall and spare, Frederick Edward John Miller had a long face with a high forehead and short, Parisian beard. Born November 24, 1824, the man destined to found the Miler Brewing Company hailed from a family of German politicians, scholars and business owners and reportedly received $3,000 annually from an ancestral estate in Riedlingen, Germany.
At the age of 14, he was sent to France for seven years of study, including Latin, French and English. After his graduation, he toured France, Italy, Switzerland and Algiers. On his way back to Germany, he visited his uncle — a brewer — in Nancy, France. He decided to stay and learn the business.
Working through the various departments of his uncle’s brewery, and supplementing the experience thus gained with the fruits of observation during visits to various beer-producing cities of Germany, he leased the royal brewery (of the Hohenzollerns) at Sigmaringen, Germany,” according to the 1914 edition of the Evening Wisconsin Newspaper Reference Book. Miller brewed beer under a royal license that read, “By gracious permission of his highness.”
On June 7, 1853, he married Josephine Miller at Friedrichshafen. About a year later, their first son, Joseph Edward, was born. In 1854, with Germany in the throes of political unrest and growing restrictions, the Millers and their infant son emigrated to the United States. They brought with them $9,000 in gold — believed to be partially gifts from Miller’s mother and his wife’s dowry, but “mostly from the fruits of his own labor,” a 1955 research account indicated. An undocumented story said the money was from a royal gift, but the 1955 researcher deemed that account unlikely because of the lack of records to prove it.
After spending a year based in New York City and inspecting various parts of the country by river and lake steamer, Miller traveled up the Mississippi to Prairie du Chien and traveled overland to Milwaukee. According to another old tale, Miller slept on a sack of meal on deck while waiting for a berth to open on the riverboat.
“He found out in the morning that the place had been vacated by a man who had just died of cholera. Miller rushed to the steward, got a bottle of whiskey and swallowed it at a single tilt. He lived in fear for a week, but he didn’t get cholera,” according to a story found in the Milwaukee County Historical Society archives. The same story said that, upon arriving in Milwaukee, Miller remarked: “A town with a magnificent harbor like that has a great future in store.”
Shortly after he arrived in Milwaukee, Frederick Miller paid $8,000 for the Plank-Road Brewery — a five-year — old brewery started by Frederick Charles Best and abandoned in 1854. Miller became a brewery owner in an era when beer sold for about $5 per barrel in the Milwaukee area and for three to five cents a glass at the city’s taverns. The Plank-Road Brewery — now the Milwaukee Brewery — was several miles west of Milwaukee in the Menomonee Valley. It proved ideal for its nearness to a good water source and to raw materials grown on surrounding farms.
Another story said that, on his first day at the plant, Miller “took a brief interlude from work and killed a black bear that had poked its nose out of the bushes across the road from the brewery.”
Because the brewery site was so far from town, Miller opened a boarding house next to the brew house for his unmarried employees. The workers ate their meals in the family house, at the top of the hill overlooking the brewery. Their annual wages ranged from $480 to $1,300, plus meals and lodging.
In an 1879 letter to relatives in Germany, Miller described the meals of the employees, who began work at 4 a.m.: “Breakfast for single men (married men eat with their families) at 6 o’clock in the morning consists of coffee and bread, beef steak or some other roasted meat, potatoes, eggs and butter. Lunch at 9 o’clock consists of a meat portion, cheese, bread and pickles. The 12 o’clock midday meal consists of soup, a choice of two meats, vegetables, cake, etc. The evening meal at 6 o’clock consists of meat, salad, eggs, tea and cakes.”
The day included a rest period from noon until 1 p.m. with work concluding at 6 p.m. Miller himself arose between 3 a.m. and 4 a.m. each day during the summer to “energetically tour the brewery and write a few letters.” After a 7 a.m. breakfast of Swiss cheese with rye bread and fresh butter and a large cup of coffee with cream, Miller devoted the rest of his morning to correspondence.
He spent his afternoons attending to business outside of the office, including trips to the post office, bank, railroad office and to make purchases. He went to bed at 8 p.m. in winter and 9 p.m. in the summer.
Miller was a resourceful businessman, establishing a beautiful beer garden that attracted weekend crowds for bowling, dancing, fine lunches and old-fashioned gemuetlichkeit. “You can perceive that people in America, especially where Germans are located, also know how to live,” Miller wrote. “When one plods through the week and has dealt with all sorts of problems, one is entitled to enjoy his life on Sundays and holidays and should not complain about spending a few dollars mote or less.”
An April 24, 1857, newspaper account heralded the opening of a new beer hall by Miller on Milwaukee’s East Water Street where he dispensed “an excellent article of ‘lager’ to all thirsty visitors.”
When sales dropped during the Civil War, Miller is said to have traveled with a shipment of beer directly to St. Louis, and made deliveries himself, by horse and wagon.
In June 1884, he constructed a new brewery on two acres of land he purchased near Bismark in the Dakota Territory. Unfortunately, the state went dry the day the brewery was to open, according to one account. However, the Dakota brewery was listed among Miller’s assets when he died of cancer in 1888.
Records do not indicate the cause of Josephine’s death in April 1860, leaving Miller to care for Louisa, age 2. One family story states that Josephine died from an influenza outbreak while on a ship traveling back to Germany for a visit. Another speculated that she might have died in childbirth. At the time of her death, Milwaukee was issuing burial certificates at a rate of about 60 to 70 per week, with deaths mostly because of cholera.
Whatever the reason, Josephine’s death, and the deaths of their children, would haunt Miller throughout his life. The couple had six children, most of whom did not survive infancy, and Louisa who died of tuberculosis at the age of 16.
Miller married Lisette Gross later in 1860, and they, too, had several children who died in infancy and five who survived: Ernst, Emil, Fred, Clara and Elise.
In the 1879 letter, Miller offered a glimpse of his personal torments: “Think of me and what I had to endure – I have lost several children and a wife in the flower of their youth. I myself was at death’s door several times and still God did not foresake me. Instead I was manifestly blessed in the autumn of my life.
“Whenever I think of all of them, how they were taken away from me so quickly and unexpectedly, then I become sad and melancholy…
“In spite of all the misfortunes and fateful blows, I never lost my head. After every blow, just as a bull, I jumped back higher and higher…
“Whenever I think about it, I realize we must submit ourselves without murmur or complaint to the unexplainable wisdom of God and that such wisdom transcends human understanding.”
Miller’s children with Lisette provided the descendents who, with their spouses, later led Miller Brewing Company through the purchase of most of their stock by W.R. Grace Co. in 1966. Philip Morris Inc. purchased the company in 1969 and the rest of the family’s stock in 1970.