Patent No. 436498A: Apparatus For Brewing

Today in 1890, US Patent 436498 A was issued, an invention of Carl Hafner, for his “Apparatus For Brewing.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

My invention relates to an improved apparatus for use in the process of making beer.

In the usual process of boiling beer or wort with hops the essential oils, aroma, and volatile oils escape and are wasted or are condensed and passed back into the brew-kettle during the boiling process; but as the essential oils, aroma, etc., vaporize and escape when the hot liquid remains at a temperature of about Reaumur, and as it is necessary after boiling the wort with the hops a certain time to allow the boiling liquid to cool oft in the open air, it will thus be seen that these volatile matters will still escape.

The object of my invention is to provide an improved apparatus for use in the process of manufacturing beer, whereby the essential oils, volatile matters, etc., are saved and afterward added to the beer, and whereby a great saving is made in hops. These objects are accomplished by and my invention consists in certain novel features of construction and combinations of parts, more fully described hereinafter, and particularly pointed out in the claim.


Patent No. 459635A: Rinsing Tub

Today in 1892, US Patent 459635 A was issued, an invention of John D. Kelly, for his “Rinsing Tub.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates to a glass and tumbler washer and rinser for use in bar-rooms.

The objects of the invention are to provide a suitable washer to be located behind the bar in which tumblers or glasses may be plunged and washed or rinsed, to construct the washer in a cheap and simple manner, adapt it to avoid waste of water, and to be readily cleaned.


Historic Beer Birthday: John H. Meyer

Today is the birthday of John H. Meyer (September 15, 1818-1890 or after). Meyer was born in Oldenburg, Germany, but moved to Covington, Kentucky when he was 19. Julius Deglow founded what would become the Bavarian Brewing Co. in 1866. In 1879, John H. Meyer briefly bought a controlling interest in the brewery and for a time it was called the John Meyer Brewery. There’s not much more information I could find out about John H. Meyer, not his photo or even when he died.


The Wikipedia page for the Bavarian Brewing Co. mentions Meyer, but he’s not even considered one of the most important people in the history of the brewery, which was open for 100 years.

After the brewery was established as DeGlow & Co., new ownership interests within just a couple of years resulted in several change to its name beginning in 1868, including DeGlow, Best & Renner. However, in 1873, it was established as the Bavarian Brewery Co. Over the next several years the brewery operated under this name, but ownership interests varied. John Meyer obtained controlling interest and the brewery operated under his name for a short time, starting in 1879. Then in 1882, a German immigrant named William Riedlin, who established a saloon and beer hall called Tivoli Hall in the Over The Rhine area of Cincinnati, entered into partnership with John Meyer. It operated as the Meyer-Riedlin Brewery before Riedlin purchased controlling interest in the brewery from Meyer, incorporated the business under its former name and became president in 1889.


The Kenton County Public Library also has a history of the Bavarian Brewery, and again Meyer figured only very briefly in the first paragraph.

Bavarian Brewery can be traced back to the year 1866 when Julius Deglow and Charles L. Best began operating a small brewery on Pike Street in Lewisburg. In 1869, the brewery officially became known as Bavarian. William Riedlin and John Meyer were the next owners of the brewery. They purchased Bavarian in 1882. Seven years later, Riedlin became the sole owner. Anton Ruh was hired as the brew master.




Patent No. 349178A: Cooling Air And Apparatus Therefor

Today in 1892, US Patent 349178 A was issued, an invention of Stanislas Rouart, for his “Cooling Air and Apparatus Therefor.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

The main object of my invention is to effectively cool the air of rooms or spaces in which it is necessary or desirable to maintain a free circulation of air as, for instance, in cellars for storing or treating beer, etc.


Patent No. WO2012122019A1: Barley Cultivar Moravian 115

Today in 2012, US Patent WO 2012122019 A1 was issued, an invention of Dennis Dolan, assigned to MillerCoors, for his “Barley Cultivar Moravian 115.”

Moravian barley in Colorado.

Here’s the Abstract:

A barley cultivar, designated MV115, is disclosed. MV115 is a high yield, lodging resistant cultivar with exceptional malting characteristics particularly useful in the brewing industry. The disclosure relates to seeds, plants, and to methods for producing a barley plant produced by crossing barley cultivar MV115 with itself or another barley variety. Methods for producing a barley plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes are disclosed. Barley varieties or breeding varieties, plant parts, methods for producing other barley varieties, lines or plant parts, and to the barley plants, varieties, and their parts derived from the use of those methods are disclosed. The disclosure further relates to hybrid barley seeds and plants produced by crossing bariey cultivar MV115 with another barley cultivar. Methods for developing other barley varieties or breeding lines derived from variety MV115 including cell and tissue culture, haploid systems, mutagenesis, and transgenic derived lines are disclosed.


Last year, I visited Coors’ barley fields in a valley in Colorado, where local farmers grow Moravian barley for them.


Patent No. EP0070570B1: Yeast Strain For Use In Brewing

Today in 1989, US Patent EP 0070570 B1 was issued, an invention of George Stewart Graham, Edmund Goring Thomas and Russell Ingeborg, assigned to the Labatt Brewing Company, for their “Yeast Strain For Use in Brewing.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates to a novel yeast strain suitable for use in the brewing of beer and to a method of preparing the same.

In the brewing of beer, i.e. ale and lager, ale yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are traditionally top-cropping strains and lager yeast strains (Saccharomyces uvarum (carlsbergensis)) are bottom-cropping strains. That is, when the attenuation of the wort, which may be broadly defined as the conversion of fermentable substrate to alcohol, has attained a certain level, the discrete yeast cells of most ale strains adhere or aggregate to an extent that, adsorbed to bubbles of carbon dioxide, they will rise to the surface under quiescent conditions (e.g. when the medium is not agitated) where they are “cropped” by being skimmed off. In the case of lager strains, the aggregated cells are not adsorbed to bubbles of carbon dioxide and settle out of suspension to the bottom of the vessel where they are “cropped” by various standard methods.

One of the limitations of the known ale yeast strains is that they do not function satisfactorily in worts having plato values (°P) higher than about 14.5°P and values of only about 9°P to 12°P are usually required. The plato value (°P) is defined as the weight of dissolved solids, expressed as a percentage, in water at 15.6°C. Generally, the higher the plato value at which a yeast strain will function, the greater is the conversion of fermentable substrate to alcohol for a given volume of wort. Consequently, the resultant fermentation product would be one of higher than usually desired final alcohol content and would generally be diluted before packaging. Since the dilution to obtain a standard, commercially acceptable product would occur at the end of the brewing process, the overall throughput of such a brewing system would be substantially increased over a conventional system. Furthermore, beers produced from such high plato worts generally exhibit improved colloidal haze and flavour stability.

In view of the economic advantages possible in fermenting worts of higher plato values, there has been a substantial amount of research carried out in the hope of obtaining a yeast strain which will function at such higher plato values in the range of about 16°P to 18°P, i.e. a yeast strain which will remain in the body of the wort until substantial or total conversion of the fermentable sugars to alcohol atthe higher Plato values has occurred. As an alternative, attempts have been made to maintain known yeast strains in the body of the wort by mechanical means, such as continuous stirring, in the hope thatthe yeast would continue to function if maintained in contact with the wort. However, this has proved to be inefficient and in many cases more expensive because of the extra energy required to operate such mechanical means. Furthermore, many such attempts have been frustrated by difficulties of product flavour match with present commercially acceptable standards.

The inventors of this invention have now discovered a yeast strain which is an ale yeast (species Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that not only functions at high plato values, e.g. up to about 18°P, but also flocculates to the bottom of the fermenting vessel when conversion or attenuation has been substantially completed (the latter feature, as noted above, is usually characteristic of a lager strain rather than an ale strain).

The present novel organism was found to be a component of a mixture of ale yeasts maintained by the assignee. The organism was isolated and biologically pure cultures thereof were produced by techniques considered standard by those skilled in the art and can be obtained upon request from the permanent collection of the National Collection of Yeast Cultures (termed “NCYC” herein), Food Research Institute, Norwich, Norfolk, England. The accession number of the organism in this repository is NCYC No. 962.

Thus, according to one aspect of the present invention there is provided a brewing process wherein a malt wort is prepared; fermented with brewers’ yeast; and, following completion of the fermentation, finished to the desired alcoholic brewery beverage; the improvement comprising fermenting said wort having a Plato value of about 14.5 or greater with a strain of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewers’ yeast having the NCYC No. 962.

In another aspect the invention provides a brewing process for producing ale, wherein a hopped, 30% corn grit adjunct wort is prepared having a Plato value of from about 16°P to 18°P; fermented at a temperature of about 21°C for about 3 to 5 days with a species of Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewers’ yeast; and, following completion of the fermentation, finished to the desired ale; the improvement comprising fermenting said wort with a strain of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewers’ yeast having the NCYC No. 962.

In a further aspect the invention provides a biologically pure culture of a brewers’ yeast strain of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae having the NCYC No. 962, said strain having the ability to ferment high Plato value worts of 14.5 or greater and the ability of flocculate to the bottom of the fermentation vessel when attenuation is substantially complete.

In a further aspect of the invention provides a method of manufacturing a novel brewers’ yeast strain, wherein a yeast strain is propagated in an oxygenated nutrient medium, the improvement comprising propagating a biologically pure culture of a yeast strain of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae having the NCYC No. 962.

The advantage of the yeast strain of the present invention (referred to herein as strain 962 for the sake of convenience) is that it has both bottom-cropping characteristics as well as the ability to ferment high specific gravity worts. The bottom-cropping characteristic is advantageous because of increased utilization in the brewing industry of large conical-based vessels for fermenting the wort, and bottom-cropping is especially facile in such vessels. Thus strain 962 is particularly well adapted for use with continuous brewing techniques as well as batch-wise brewing.

The fact that strain 962 can ferment worts having high plato values is economically advantageous in that use of such worts allows dilution with water at a much later stage in the processing, generally prior to packaging. By reducing the amount of water required in the majority of process stages, increasing production demands can be met without the expansion of existing brewing, fermenting and storage facilities and the overall throughput of an existing brewery system can be substantially increased by the use of strain 962. Consequently, the brewing process can be carried out at a reduced overall cost, including a reduced energy cost.

Thus, while a number of bottom-cropping ale strains are known, the dual characteristics of bottom-cropping and the ability to ferment which gravity worts makes strain 962 of the present invention especially useful in the brewing of ale.


Patent No. WO2007102850A1: Gluten-Free Beer And Method For Making The Same

Today in 2007, US Patent WO 2007102850 A1 was issued, an invention of Russell J. Klisch, assigned to the Lakefront Brewery, for his “Gluten-Free Beer and Method For Making the Same.” Lakefront Brewery developed this patented for their beer New Grist. Here’s the Abstract:

A gluten-free beer derived from fermentable sugars obtained from an enzymatic reaction with gluten-free cereals and grains, and a method of making a gluten-free beer that includes dissolving enzyme-produced fermentable sugars derived from gluten-free cereals and grains in water to produce an aqueous solution, adding a yeast nutrient, a protein coagulant and hops to the aqueous solution to form an aqueous brew, and fermenting the aqueous brew by the addition of yeast to produce a gluten-free beer.


Patent No. 3834296A: Continuous Production Of Beer Wort From Dried Malt

Today in 1889, US Patent 3834296 A was issued, an invention of Uwe Jess and Wolfgang Kehs, for their “Continuous Production of Beer Wort From Dried Malt.” Here’s the Abstract:

An apparatus for continuously making beer wort from dried malt has a malt soaking unit and a malt crusher which is adapted to receive the soaked malt from the unit and has at least two smooth-surface cooperating rolls and drive means for driving them at differential velocities. A conduit system has a plurality of upright heatable conduit sections and serves for heating a mash which is produced after the malt has been treated in the crusher, and a clarifying unit is provided for clarifying the mash having been heated previously.


Patent No. 410994A: Stave Dressing Machine

Today in 1889, US Patent 410994 A was issued, an invention of Charles Sommer, for his “Stave Dressing Machine.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

My invention relates to improvements in that class of machines by which staves used in the manufacture of cooperage, such as beer kegs, barrels, etc. are dressed. Its object is to dress the staves on both sides at once, giving them at the same time the desired curve corresponding with the curve of the keg or barrel and providing at the two ends additional thickness, allowing depth for the croze.


Ballantine’s Literary Ads: James Hilton

Between 1951 and 1953, P. Ballantine and Sons Brewing Company, or simply Ballentine Beer, created a series of ads with at least thirteen different writers. They asked each one “How would you put a glass of Ballantine Ale into words?” Each author wrote a page that included reference to their beer, and in most cases not subtly. One of them was James Hilton, who’s best known for a few novels turned into films. His ad ran in 1952.

Today is the birthday of James Hilton (September 9, 1900–December 20, 1954), who “was an English novelist best remembered for several best-sellers, including Lost Horizon and Goodbye, Mr. Chips. He also wrote Hollywood screenplays.”


His piece for Ballantine was done in the form of his reminiscences about his first Ballantine Ale, and why he continues to recommend it or serve it to friends:

I first tasted Ballantine Ale on a mountain. We left a few bottles hidden in the first snow on the way up, and when we came down they were a treasure trove — deliciously iced and full of the flavor of fellowship and happy hours.

Since then I have enjoyed Ballantine Ale and offered it to friends on many far different occasions — lower in altitude but just as high in satisfaction. For Ballantine Ale is a good drink at all levels — and by a good drink, I mean that I’ve always found it thirst-quenching, smooth and comfortable, kind to the senses and nourishing to the memory.