Patent No. 656418A: Device For Drawing Steam Beer

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Today in 1900, US Patent 656418 A was issued, an invention of James O’Connor, for his “Device For Drawing Steam Beer, Etc.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

My invention relates to an apparatus which is designed for drawing liquids under pressure; but it is especially useful when connected with casks containing what is known as steam-beer or beer in which carbonic acid gas is contained to produce a high pressure and head within the cask.

It consists of connections between one or more casks and a distributing-chamber and connections between said chamber and a cylinder containing a piston which is reciprocable within the cylinder, so that when beer is admitted into the cylinder the piston will be moved toward the opposite end until the de sired amount of beer has been admitted, which is shown by a suitable recording device. The beer is drawn from the cylinder through a discharge-cock, and the gas in the beer is so diffused and caused to escape from the beer that little or no foam results when it is drawn from the cylinder. A second cylinder in line with the first contains a piston, the piston-rod connecting the pistons in both cylinders, so that they move in unison. A four-way cock is interposed between the cylinders, and water under pressure is brought through this cock and allowed to enter the second cylinder while the beer is entering the first and the cock is turned so as to allow the water to escape from this cylinder and to enter the first cylinder to return the piston therein to its normal position after the boot has been drawn.

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Patent No. 3145106A: Addition Of Dry Clay To Beer

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Today in 1964, US Patent 3145106 A was issued, an invention of George F. Goerl, for his “Addition Of Dry Clay To Beer.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

The gist of the present invention lies in the addition of chill-proofing clay to beer in dry form without first forming an aqueous slurry of the clay as in prior procedures. The dry clay is introduced into the beer by incorporating the clay in the conventional filter cake used to pre-filter beer after fermentation. The clay enters the beer as the beer passes through the filter cake. By adding the clay in dry form the sludge and beer loss attendant the use of hydrated clay is avoided. In addition, the chill-proofing effect of the clay appears to be enhanced by the present method.

Thus in the preferred embodiment there is provided an improved method for adding clay to beer in order to chill-proof the beer comprising slurrying diatomaceous earth and hectorite in a preselected volume of beer, forming an initial filter cake from said slurry of diatomaceous earth and hectorite, and flowing beer after fermentation through said filter cake to pre-filter the beer and to erode hectorite from the filter cake into the beer to chill-proof the beer. A beer slurry of diatomaceous earth and hectorite is continuously added in controlled quantities to beer prior to passage of the beer through the filter cake in order to continuously build up the filter cake and replace eroded hectorite. The initial cake and continuous addition are controlled to provide about 200 p.p.m. of hectorite with respect to the beer for erosion into the beer.

The present invention applies to malt beverages generally including beer, ale, stout, and the like. For ease of description, beer has been frequently used throughout the specification and claims. However, wherever the term beer appears it should be understood that the other related malt beverages could be readily substituted therefor.

Beer production follows a generally accepted sequence of steps. First, aqueous extract from suitable grain is fermented to produce beer. After fermentation has been completed, the temperature is dropped to approximately 30 F. and the beer is transferred from the fermentation equipment into a storage tank for a rest or aging period at about 30-32 F. The rest period may be as little as five days and in some cases as much as three months. Carbon dioxide may or may not be introduced into the beer during the rest period. The carbon dioxide is used to partially carbonate the beverage and purge the liquid of entrapped air.

After this first storage the beer is put through a preclarification or prefiltration operation. This is usually accomplished with some mechanical means such as a centrifuge or a filter. The present invention comes into play in this preclarification step. Most prevalently, the preclarification or first filtration (a second or polish filtration occurs at the termination of the processing of the beer) is accomplished by passing the beer through a filter cake formed by any suitable porous filtering substance. Most preferably and commonly, the substance employed is diatomaceous earth. However, other suitable substances such as perlite or cotton fibrous pads might be used as alternatives.

After pre-filtration the beer is then transferred into a finishing storage tank for another storage period of about one to five days during which time final carbonation is accomplished. Following the finishing period the beer is polish filtered. The beer is then in a form as found in the final product when purchased by the consumer.

During the course of the processing subsequent to fermentation, several treatments have become standard which serve to stabilize and make the final product more desirable in many respects. The beer may be treated with a clay for chill-proofing purposes in accordance with the method described in United States Patent No. 2,416,007, dated February 18, 1947. That patent teaches the addition of an aqueous suspension of suitable clays into the beer for removing foreign or partially soluble substances from beer such as undesirable proteins or proteinaceous complexes.

A number of improvements have been made upon said patent most of which include the preparation of an aqueous suspension of the clay prior to its addition to the beer. The present method is a further improvement upon said patent and prior techniques in that the aqueous suspension is avoided and the clay in dry form is added directly to the beer.

The most significant phenomenon that has been observed when dry clay is added to beer as opposed to aqueous suspensions of clay is that the clay does not swell as in aqueous addition techniques. This difference in the properties of the clay between the two types of addition is most important from an economic standpoint. In the aqueous addition of the clay the fully hydrated clay flocks and precipitates forming a sediment or sludge on the bottom of the treatment tank. When clay is added dry to beer it remains in the beer in particle size and no flocculation as such occurs.

Specifically, the practical advantage which follows from the use of dry clay includes the ease with which the beer may be finally filtered because of the simplicity of separating the non-flocculated clay after it has performed its function. Most important, the use of dry clay greatly reduces the volume of the trapped beer in the clay because of the non-flocculated, high density characteristics of the clay when added dry. This means a higher yield of beer per unit of beer-making ingredients.

In all respects the present method is similar to the prior methods of treating beer except that. the clay is added in dry form and at the point in the processing where the pro-filtration occurs. Aside from this difference all other prior techniques for treating the beer may e used as desired. Thus the various other treatments for stabilizing and clarifying beer may be used in addition to the clay treatment. These additional steps may include the use of reducing agents such as potassium metabisulfite, or preferably S0 gas itself, in accordance with United States Patent No. 2,916,377, dated December 8, 1959. It is also common to employ a proteolytic enzyme such as bromelin and/ or papain. The use of these other materials in the presently improved process is unchanged in any significant respect from prior techniques such as quantity of these other materials which may be employed or the point in the brewing process where they may be added. For example, when S0 gas is used, it may be introduced in the range of 5 to 30 ppm. and the enzyme dosage may be between 50015,000 activity units per barrels of beer processed, and they may be added at any point after fermentation, individually or simultaneously.

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Patent No. 3201328A: Continuous Fermentation Apparatus For Beer Production

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Today in 1965, US Patent 3201328 A was issued, an invention of Rees Philip Williams, for his “Continuous Fermentation Apparatus For Beer Production.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates to the manufacture of beer, and more particularly to the fermentation of Brewers Wort, i.e. wort plus yeast as well known in the art, under steady rate conditions.

Hitherto, the fermentation process has been carried out, on a commercial scale, by batch processes which are relatively slow and involve the utilisation of relatively very bulky vessels for adequate production in quantity.

The object of the present invention is to provide apparatus suitable for use in carrying out such fermentation as a continuous process, with the advantages of relatively smaller vessels and higher production rate.

Fermentation of wort by yeast, in the production of beer, may be carried out by a continuous process including a first step of forming a mixture of sterile wort and yeast in first vessel means under temperature conditions selected to ensure multiplication of the yeast, a second step of continuously removing wort and yeast mixture which has dwelt in the first vessel means for a predetermined period of time and passing said removed mixture through second vessel means at a rate and under temperature conditions selected to ensure rapid fermentation by the yeast and production of a yeast crop, and a third step of continuously removing wort which has dwelt in the second vessel means for a predetermined period of time and passing said wort through third vessel means at a rate permitting settling.

According to the present invention, apparatus suitable for use in carrying out the above-described method, but not limited thereto, comprises a first vessel for making a ferment mixture such as sterile wort and yeast, means for controlling the temperature of the mixture in the first vessel, a second vessel having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet being connected to the outlet of the first vessel, means for controlling the temperture of mixture in the second vessel, a third vessel having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet being connected to the outlet of the second vessel, and means for controlling the temperature of fermented liquid in the third vessel.

The second vessel means could be simply a single vessel in which substantially the whole of the vigorous fermentation took place, but it is preferred to constitute the second vessel means by two vessels through which the mixture passes in succession, whereby the second method step referred to above itself includes two successive stages the first of which is a continuous passage of the mixture through a vessel at a rate and under conditions of temperature ensuring rapid fermentation, and the second of which is passage of the product through a further vessel at a rate and under conditions of temperature ensuring continuation of the rapid fermentation and a climax of the yeast crop production.

According to the type and characteristics of the beer to be produced, and of the wort and yeast to be used in the process, it is desirable to be able, at will, to both speed up and slow down the rate of fermentation. For

this purpose, gas or a mixture of gases may be introduced in the first and/or the second vessel means according to the effect sought. For example, air or pure oxygen may be introduced to boost the fermentation action, i.e. to rouse the yeast, and carbon dioxide or nitrogen may be introduced to slow down the fermentation process.

During the latter part of the active fermentation phase a yeast head is produced, e.g. in the second vessel means (and in the second of the two individual vessels where two in series are used). This head my be continuously removed together with a small content of wort, this wort being separated and recirculated, e.g. introduced back into the flow path for example immediately after the second vessel means.

It is preferred to arrange the apparatus so that the entire flow occurs by gravity through vessels arranged in series at progressively lower levels.

In a preferred embodiment, the second vessel is in two parts which are connected serially and are each provided with their individual means for controlling the temperature of the mixture therein. It is further preferred to have the temperature controlling means acting independently at separate levels, e.g. by two or more fluid jackets arranged along the vessels wall.

Preferably also, each vessel is provided with means, such as a simple conduit connected to a pump or pressure source, for the introduction of gas for quickening (e.g. rousing) and for slowing of the fermentation.

The first vessel, wherein multiplication of the yeast takes place, may be provided with agitator means adjacent the inlet end for assisting the flow and a stirrer adjacent the outlet end for ensuring mixing.

Where the process involves the production of a head on the fermented material, e.g. a yeast head, means are advantageously provided for continuous removal of such a head from the vessel in which it occurs, e.g. means for removal of the relatively copious head formed during the climax of fermentation in the third vessel. Means may also be included for continuously treating the removed head material by pressing it for removal of its wort content for recirculation.

In a preferred embodiment, for use in brewing of beer, the series of vessels are arranged successively at lower levels to give a flow of liquid through the apparatus by gravity, the inlet of each vessel being adjacent to the lower part of that vessel and the outlet of each vessel being adjacent the upper part of that vessel.

Where a gas or gases are given off during the process, one or more of the vessels may be provided with means for continuous removal of the gas, e.g. for continuous removal of carbon dioxide from the second vessel.

Where the process being carried out involves the formation of solid deposits, means may be provided for its continuous removal, e.g. for the removal of sludge from the bottom of the second of the two serially connected parts of the second vessel.

Carbon dioxide gas may also be injected in the third vessel for gasifying-of the liquor.

Where a relatively longer dwell time of the liquid in any vessel is desired, the cross-section of the vessel may be proportionately increased. Thus, by varying the size and cross-section of the vessels, the apparatus and process can be adjusted to suit the natural characteristics of the particular yeast which the brewer wishes to use.

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Historic Beer Birthday: Johan Kjeldahl

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Today is the birthday of Johan Gustav Christoffer Thorsager Kjeldahl (August 16, 1849-July 18, 1900) He was a Danish chemist who developed a method for determining the amount of nitrogen in certain organic compounds using a laboratory technique which was named the Kjeldahl method after him.

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Kjeldahl worked in Copenhagen at the Carlsberg Laboratory, associated with Carlsberg Brewery, where he was head of the Chemistry department from 1876 to 1900.

He was given the job to determine the amount of protein in the grain used in the malt industry. Less protein meant more beer. Kjeldahl found the answer was in developing a technique to determine nitrogen with accuracy but existing methods in analytical chemistry related to proteins and biochemistry at the time were far from accurate.

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A painting by Otto Haslund of Johan Kjeldahl.

His discovery became known as the Kjeldahl Method

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The method consists of heating a substance with sulphuric acid, which decomposes the organic substance by oxidation to liberate the reduced nitrogen as ammonium sulphate. In this step potassium sulphate is added to increase the boiling point of the medium (from 337 °C to 373 °C) . Chemical decomposition of the sample is complete when the initially very dark-coloured medium has become clear and colourless.

The solution is then distilled with a small quantity of sodium hydroxide, which converts the ammonium salt to ammonia. The amount of ammonia present, and thus the amount of nitrogen present in the sample, is determined by back titration. The end of the condenser is dipped into a solution of boric acid. The ammonia reacts with the acid and the remainder of the acid is then titrated with a sodium carbonate solution by way of a methyl orange pH indicator.

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In practice, this analysis is largely automated; specific catalysts accelerate the decomposition. Originally, the catalyst of choice was mercuric oxide. However, while it was very effective, health concerns resulted in it being replaced by cupric sulfate. Cupric sulfate was not as efficient as mercuric oxide, and yielded lower protein results. It was soon supplemented with titanium dioxide, which is currently the approved catalyst in all of the methods of analysis for protein in the Official Methods and Recommended Practices of AOAC International.

And Velp Scientifica also has an explanation of his method, which is still in use today.

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Kjeldahl (center) in his laboratory.

Patent Nos. 767960A & 767961A: Pasteurizer

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Today in 1904, both US Patent 767960 A and US Patent 767961 A were issued, and both are related inventions of William J. Ruff, under the same name: “Pasteurizer.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims for the first one:

My present invention relates to an apparatus for pasteurizing. beer, one of the principal objects of my invention being to simplify the construction and cheapen the cost of the apparatus, as well as improving its efficiency, by dispensing with a tank through which the bottles of beer are carried to expose them to the different temperatures to wit, in first at temperating the beer, then heating it to the maximum temperature, and finally cooling it to approximately atmospheric temperature.

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And here’s a description of the claims for the second patent:

The object of my present invention .is to produce a pasteurizer wherein the bottles of beer are submerged in a water-bath during the time that they are subjected to the maximum temperature, while the preliminary heating and final cooling of the beer is effected without having the bottles submerged in the bath, the result being that a comparatively small amount of waterY is necessary to accomplish the work of pasteurization.

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Patent No. 409056A: Water Coil Boiler

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Today in 1889, US Patent 409056 A was issued, an invention of Everett D. Moore, for his “Water Coil Boiler.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

The object of my invention is to provide an effective and convenient means for steaming, flushing, and thoroughly cleansing the pipes that are frequently employed for conducting stood that I do not confine myself to a burner beer, wines, and other liquids from a keg, of any particular form of construction. barrel, or other source from a keg, barrel, or other source to the tap or faucet of a beverage-drawing apparatus, which pipes are liable to become fouled and internally coated with sediment from the liquors or beverages passed through them, especially when standing therein over night. The impurities that are thus deposited in the pipes of a beverage-drawing apparatus are liable to taint a series of perforations 12 for the exit of gas. the liquor and are often injurious to health.

Heretofore the pipes of a beverage-drawing apparatus have been cleansed to some extent by forcing through them solutions of potash, lime, and other substances, which, however, are liable themselves to form injurious compounds in the pipes. My invention obviates these difficulties by providing a means for thoroughly cleansing the pipes with steam and hot water, as hereinafter described.

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Patent No. RE10509E: Mash Cooler

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Today in 1884, US Patent RE10509 E was issued, an invention of Frederick O. Kunz, for his “Mash Cooler.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates to an apparatus for cooling mash to the fermentation temperature, which is simple in construction, effective in operation, and capable of being thoroughly cleaned with facility. The apparatus comprises a vertical column or chamber, which is traversed by a series of water conducting pipes, and is provided with detachable outer walls and doors for gaining access into the interior of the column and the tubes, for cleaning and other purposes. The water-tubes extend through the shell of the vertical column and lead into small non-communicating chambers formed between the shell of the cooler and the outer walls. The object of these chambers is to cause the water circulating through the tubes in an upward 0 direction to take a circuitous or zigzag course and flow out at the top of the cooler. The mash to be cooled flows into the cooler at the top thereof, and is strained and thrown down over the pipes in the form of a shower, and it makes its exit at the bottom of the cooler and passes through a vertical stand-pipe and escapes at the top of the latter, being then of a temperature suitable for immediate fermentation in the customary fermenters.

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Patent No. 20110195150A1: Composition Of “Radoy” Beer And Its Production Method

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Today in 2011, US Patent 20110195150 A1 was issued, an invention of Yevhen Yukhnytsya, for his “Composition of ‘Radoy’ Beer and its Production Method.” Here’s the Abstract:

A beer composition includes water, ground malt, yeast of bottom fermentation, hop extract and milk thistle solution in the following proportion: 100 l water; 10-50 kg ground malt; 1.0-3.0 l yeast of bottom fermentation; 10-30 g of alpha acid of hops extract; 5-30 g milk thistle solution for 1 l of wort. A production method includes mash preparation, mash saccharification, wort separation from the spent grains, wort boiling, fermentation, and after-fermentation. At the beginning of wort boiling the milk thistle is added, whose fruits were ground in a grinder with a roller distance of 0-2.5 mm, the grinding is mixed with water, heated to 70-150° C., and boiled for 45-90 minutes, whereupon milk thistle fruit concentration makes from 1 to 99% of wort volume. The beer composition enables not only a positive effect on a human body, especially on a liver and kidneys, but also having curative properties.

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Patent No. 4343231A: Brewing Apparatus Having Sampling Means Delivering Suspension To Fermenting Vessel

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Today in 1982, US Patent 4343231 A was issued, an invention of Andre F. Devreux, assigned to the Compagnie Internationale de Participation et d’Investissement “Cipari” S.A., for his “Brewing Apparatus Having Sampling Means Delivering Suspension to Fermenting Vessel.” Here’s the Abstract:

A process for adjusting the amount of yeast introduced into a fermentative liquid comprises periodically taking a sample from a mass of suspended yeast maintained in movement in a closed circuit, subjecting the sample to fermentation by adding a nutrient element, and adjusting the supply of yeast to the liquid in accordance with the fermentative power of the treated yeast sample. The implementing plant comprises a container having a conical bottom containing yeast suspended in a liquid, a pipe connecting the bottom of the container to a fermentation tank, and a regulating or adjusting pump for supplying yeast from the container into the tank. A pipe for recycling the suspended yeast in the container is provided, as well as means for ensuring, during a predetermined time interval, the recycling of the suspension of yeast from the bottom of the container to the upper part thereof. Sampling means periodically extract a predetermined volume of the recycling yeast suspension and deliver it to a small fermenting vessel whereat the nutrient agent is supplied. Means are then provided for determining the fermentative power of the yeast sample and for adjusting the yeast supply of the fermentation tank in accordance therewith.

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Patent No. 1969643A: Beer Cooling And Dispensing Apparatus

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Today in 1934, US Patent 1969643 A was issued, an invention of Gottfried Fuchs and Hermann Spath, for their “Beer Cooling and Dispensing Apparatus.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates toan automatic cooling and pressure plant for beer conduits and cold storage rooms with employment of frozen carbon dioxide.

It is already known, to employ frozen carbon dioxide for cooling chill rooms. These plants, however, are open to the objection that the carbon dioxide becomes lost as soon as it is no longer frozen. This circumstance renders very l0 questionable the economy of this cooling method, because, as is known, carbon dioxide is very expensive.

The invention relates to a plant, in which the gaseous carbon dioxide liberated by evaporation cools the chill room and also the beer conduit in the tapping device and at the same time serves as pressure medium for the beer in the barrel. ‘The dry ice is accommodated in the cold storage room in a. receptacle with insulated walls, from which go vessel the gaseous carbon dioxide liberated by evaporation is conducted into the beer conduit cylinder through a cooling pipe conduit extending through the cold storage room. The beer conduit cylinder is surrounded by a jacket accommodating the cooling water. The gaseous carbon dioxide is conducted-as pressure medium from the beer conduit cylinder in to the barrel. Posterior the receptacle accommodating the dry ice and anterior the cooling pipe conduit a known thermostat is arranged, by means of which the passage from the ice receptacle to the cooling pipe conduit is automatically regulated.

The jacket of the beer conduit is surrounded by a further jacket, the internal space of which is filled with cooling water which, owing to the expansion of the carbon dioxide in the cylinder, is cooled to freezing point, so that an ice jacket is formed around the beer conduit. The ice jacket is surrounded by a further jacket the internal space of which is filled with cooling water in order to protect the ice jacket against the external heat.

By means of this plant the dry ice is employed for three purposes, i.e. to cool the cold storage room and the beer conduit and to place under pressure the beer conduit, so that the dry ice is utilized in the most economical manner.

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