Patent No. 3332779A: Neutral Tasting Alcoholic Malt Beverage

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Today in 1967, US Patent 3332779 A was issued, an invention of Erik Krabbe, Webster Groves, and Cavit Akin, assigned to the Falstaff Brewing Corp., for their “Neutral Tasting Alcoholic Malt Beverage.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

The preparation of a neutral tasting alcoholic substrate by yeast fermentation of unboiled, unhopped wort containing fermentable sugar.

This invention relates to alcoholic malt beverage and more particularly to formation of an alcoholic malt beverage or substrate or base. which has a relatively neutral taste. More specifically the invention relates to the formation of a neutral alcoholic substrate from malt and cereal products and thereafter flavoring the neutral substrate with various flavoring substances.

Recently, various proposals have been made to provide flavored alcoholic beverages of various descriptions such as Tom Collins, coffee, mint, cherry, etc. The technique of trying to achieve such flavored alcoholic products by the use of fermented liquor have resulted in a rather. undesired feature of having the undesired normal beer or malt liquor flavor superimposed with a second desired flavor as those heretofore mentioned. So tar one proposal is to ferment the normal beer and then eliminate the flavor of the beer by charcoal filtration. Another technique is to add the flavor agent into boiling wort at which time activated carbon is added to the kettle to remove color from the wort. When sufficient time has been allowed for extracting the flavor, the wort was filtered and then fermented.

In contrast to previous techniques, the present invention briefly contemplates preparing a neutral fermented substrate for an alcoholic malt beverage which does not require the step of attempting to remove the’malt liquor or beer taste. Such an ideal neutral substrate or base alcoholic liquor is achieved by fermenting an extract of 10 to 35 weight percent unboiled, unhopped wort and 90 to 65 weight percent fermentable sugar (cerelose for example), based on the extract being water free. On a volumetric basis, one volume of unboiled, unhopped wort at 10 percent solids is added to three volumes of cerelose solution at 10 percent solids. Four grams of yeast (wet cake) per liter is suitable. The yeast may be the normal brewery yeast which has been washed to prevent carry over of hop bitter substances. The wort and cerelose are fermented preferably at a constant temperature of 13 C. After the fermentation is complete, the fermented extract is cooled to 3 C. and remains at that temperature for two or three days to end fermentation. Thereafter, the fermented extract is centrifuged and/.or filtered to obtain the neutral base which then is ready for carbonation and flavoring. At this stage of processing the flavor of the fermented substrate is substantially neutral with no organoleptic impression of malt liquor.

Falstaff-Beer-Coasters-Placemats-Falstaff-Brewing-Corp-Plant

Patent No. 3679431A: Wort Production

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Today in 1972, US Patent 3679431 A was issued, an invention of David Henry Clayton and John Karkalas, for their “Wort Production.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention is concerned with improvements in or relating to wort production.

– Wort contains in addition to fermentable carbohydrates, soluble nitrogeneous compounds. Barley malt is the traditional raw material for the production of wort since it provides a source of carbohydrates and “nitrogen com pounds and in addition provides the enzymes capable of degrading the carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds to the soluble components of wort.

Malt is manufactured from e.g. barley by the process of malting. This consists of first germinating and then drying barley grain under controlled conditions.

The manufacture of malt is expensive because (1) large capital investments are necessary for the malting machinery, (2) a skilled labour force is required to operate the malting machines, (3) malt can only be made successfully from the higher qualities of barley which are expensive and (4) during the malting process a physical loss in dry matter occurs; this is known as the malting loss.

It is an object of the invention to provide an improved method of producing a wort in which the use of barley malt is reduced or virtually eliminated.

We have found that wort may be produced by treating an aqueous slurry of starch and protein-containing plant material for example unmalted cereal grain e.g. It appears that said hydrodynamic conditions result in the formation of a homogeneous mass very suitable for the action of the starch liquefying enzyme. Examples of starch and protein-containing plant materials other than cereals include roots, fungi material and by-products of processes to which ‘cereals have been subjected.

Examples of suitable materials include tapioca and rice, as well as wheat, barley and maize.

The invention provides a method of producing wort from an aqueous slurry of starch and protein-containing plant material comprising the steps of liquefying starch by treating the slurry with a commercial starch liquefying enzyme subjecting the slurry to hydrodynamic conditions such that a substantial thixotropic reduction of viscosity is produced by shearing forces in the slurry to facilitate the action of the starch liquefying enzyme prior to any substantial reduction of viscosity resulting from the enzymatic liquefaction converting starch to sugar by treatment with a saccharifying enzyme and converting protein to soluble nitrogen-containing compounds by treatment with a proteolytic enzyme.

The invention also provides wort when produced by a method as set out in the last preceding paragraph.

The invention also provides a process for brewing beer including such a method.

The invention also provides beer when produced by such a process.

The invention also provides a process of producing a concentrated wort syrup by concentrating wort produced by such a method.

The invention also provides a concentrated wort syrup when produced by such a process.

US3679431-0

Patent No. 654369A: Apparatus For Pasteurizing Beer

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Today in 1900, US Patent 654369 A was issued, an invention of Edward Wagner, assigned to the Model Bottling Machinery Company, for his “Apparatus For Pasteurizing Beer.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates to an improved apparatus for pasteurizing beer, the’object being to provide a simple, cheap, and convenient apparatus for treating the bottled beer to destroy the yeast molecules and germs contained therein, whereby further fermentation is prevented.

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Patent No. 607770A: Apparatus For Pasteurizing Beer

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Today in 1898, US Patent 607770 A was issued, an invention of William J. Ruff, for his “Apparatus For Pasteurizing Beer.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

My invention has for its object an improved apparatus to be utilized in pasteurizing beer, whereby the operation is more perfectly carried out and the beer more effectually and uniformly treated and its chemical properties preserved.

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Patent No. 2354092A: Art Of Brewing Beer, Ale, Or Near-Beer

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Today in 1944, US Patent 2354092 A was issued, an invention of Berthold Stein, for his “Art Of Brewing Beer, Ale, Or Near-Beer.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

The present invention includes both the process of brewing as hereinafter described, and the beverage or resulting product thereof, and when referring to beer it is intended to include ale and near-beer, and analogous beverages of the same class Beer as well as ale is generally described as a fermented malt liquor with an average percentage of alcohol of from three to four per cent. by weight, or sometimes less, as in near beer, which may have about one-half per cent. It has a mildly bitter and aromatic flavor and odor. The brewers have. always attempted to give the beer an aromatic hop flavor and odor. Up to date, they have not succeeded in doing so. The bitter and so-called aromatic flavor is to be derived from. the hops. which are used in the brewing process. While all kinds of beer and` ales taste more or less bitter, there are no beers brewed which really have an aromatic hop flavor and odor. This is due to the processes and apparatuses which are employed in the brewing of beer and ale. All beers and ales have a more or less pronounced bitter taste, and they often have a disagreeable taste and odor as well. The latter is derived principally from the cellulose matter of the husks of the grain, and the fatty oils contained in the grain, such as barley, corn or rice. These bitter tastes and disagreeable odors are the principal reasons why so many people do not drink beer. It is generally understood that beer and ale is made from malt, and hops. In this country, however, beer and ale is brewed mostly from a mixture of barley malt (about 70%), and cereals unmalted (about 30%), namely, corn, rice, corn. Syrups or sugars, and hops. The hops in the brewing of beer and ales are used as a spice or condiment with a view to overcoming the above-mentioned bad taste and odor.

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Patent No. 3044879A: Anactinic Malt Product And Hop Extract Therefor

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Today in 1962, US Patent 3044879 A was issued, an invention of William C. Herwig, Thomas L. Kissel, and Gilbert H. Koch, assigned to Miller Brewing, for his “Anactinic Malt Product and Hop Extract Therefor.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates to manufacture of anactinic malt beverages such as beer and ale, and to intermediate products.

It is well known that beer and ale and similar malt beverages are produced from water, barley malt, adjuncts and hops. The malt and adjuncts furnish the carbohydrates and other growth essentials which make up the wort. This wort, boiled with hops, in turn forms the basic substance for fermentation in the fermenting tanks. The hops give the characteristic bitter flavor and pleasant aroma to the beer. They assist in preserving the beer and improve its foam holding capacity.

Unfortunately, beer and ale and other similar malt beverages are not stable to light. Light of both visible and-invisible wave lengths affects them adversely producing actinic damage in the form of a characteristic skunky odor. Such a beer is commonly known as light struck. The actinism is caused by chemical changes, producing compounds probably mercaptans in nature. Tests show that the olfactory threshold level of odoriferous compounds of this character is very low, in the range of a few parts per billion. This shows clearly the acute nature of the problem. 7 Many efforts have been made in the past to overcome this difficulty. Much time has been expended on packaging of beer and ale to exclude light. Colored bottles have been used and opaque packages are common. It is not uncommon to label them Do Not Expose to Light.

To compete with modern day merchandising, a malt beverage has to be removed from the case and put on the shelf, or at least a portion of the container is exposed for easy vision and access. Modern reach-in coolers have clear glass windows and fluorescent lights which aggravate the problems. Even canned beer or keg beer can be adversely affected by sunlight if, as is usually the’ case, it is drunk from a glass. glass to direct sunlight for a short a time as a few minutes will result in the impairment of the taste and production of the characteristic skunky odor. Beer at picnics and sporting events is often exposed for hours to direct sunlight. In such cases, the deleterious effects can be very marked.

q We have discovered a way to overcome the hazard of product exposure to light which forms the basis of our invention, and have thereby achieved a substantially anactinic malt beverage. The term anactinic is intended The exposure of beer in the 3,044,879 Patented July 17, 1962 bitterness in the finished product, but eliminate the photoactive elements thereof.

A still further object of the, present invention is to provide a method of treating hop extract in the presence of a reducing agent to provide a concentrated product having particular application in malt beverages production, whereby its use will not affect the desired characteristics of the beverage, but will eliminate photoactive elements therein.

The soft resins and oils, which are contained in the glands produced on the hops and known as lupulin glands, are valuable constituents of the hops as used ,in the brewing process. The soft resins consist principally of (a) the alpha acids, (b) the beta acids, and (c) the uncharacterized soft resins. The alpha acids are known as humulones and the beta acids are known as lupulones. The alpha acids are the source of antiseptic and bitter substances in beer. The beta acids or lupulones have low solubility in kettle wort and beer, thus do not appreciably enter into the brewing process.

It is known that chemical changes are made in the humulones during brewing resulting in the compounds known :as isohumulones, i.e. isohumulone, isocohumwlone, isoadhurnulone, and isoprehumulone. These isocompounds are formed in the kettle during the boiling stage of the brewing process, and we have discovered that these compounds are the ones that cause the beer to become sensitive to light in the presence of sulfhydryl comhumulone, and prehumulone, is isomerized to the corresponding isohumulones. It is known that during the isomerization of the humulones to isohumulones, a new side chain is formed which now contains a carbonyl group.

It is these isohumulones-isohumulone, isocohumuloue isoadhumulone, and isoprehumulone which we have found to be involved in the photochemical reaction with sulfhydryl compounds to produce the ‘actinic damage resulting in the characteristic light struck aroma.

to succinctly describe a beverage which will not be subject to actinic damage. The word is herein coined and is derived from the word -actinic plus the prefix an, meaning not. This is the Greek equivalent to the Latin in and consists of alpha privative plus nu movable.

We have found that three factors are necessary for the reaction causing malt beverages. to become light struck. They are photo energy in the wave length region of 1,000 to 10,000 angstroms, a sulfhydryl bearing compound, and a chemical component derived from the raw materials, hops, during the brewing process.

The primary object of the invention is to provide a hop extract and malt beverage that is stable to light and will not produce unpleasant olfactory characteristics.

A further object of the invention is to so treat the hops in malt beverages so as to retain the aroma, bouquet and We are of the belief that when the isohumulones are group can be altered by means of reduction to a secondary alcohol, and by such alternation, be prevented from reacting with the sulfhydryl groups normally present in beer components.

US3044879-0

Patent No. 1190841A: Beer Strainer

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Today in 1915, US Patent 1190841 A was issued, an invention of Alexander Almasy and Joseph Bacha, for their “Beer Strainer.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this summary:

This invention relates to beer strainers.

The object of the invention resides in the provision of a device of the character named adapted to be incorporated in a beer dispensing system between the supply and the dispensing faucet for the purpose of separating all solid impurities from the beer and trapping same.

A further object of the invention resides in the provision of a beer strainer embodying an improved construction whereby same may be easily cleaned by separating the component parts thereof.

US1190841-0

Patent No. 2248153A: Method For Emulsifying The Essential Principles Of Hops

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Today in 1941, US Patent 2842293 A was issued, an invention of Lyndon D. Wood, assigned to the Nat Hops Lab Inc., for their “Method for Emulsifying the Essential Principles of Hops.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this:

In order to make an emulsion, it is generally necessary that the insoluble mat-erialheld in suspension be very finely divided, otherwise the materials will separate in the container. When that occurs, it is necessary .to shake the mixture each time before it is used.

In the making of emulsions it has been found necessary heretofore to employ what is known as an emulsifying agent in the form of a tasteless, odorless gum such as tragacanth or gum acacia. Small amounts of these gums, which are readily soluble in water are mixed with the insoluble material, and the mass is beaten in machines designed for the purpose. The beating or pounding has the effect of finely dividing the material which it is desired to emulsify and hold in suspension.

In medicine many remedies which it is desired to administer are thus emulsified. It is claimed for the use of emulsions that in emulsified form the odor and taste is blanketed, and they are unobjectionable to the patient. Also, because of the fine division, they are much more readily assimilated and more quickly and easily digested. The same claim is made for those which are use-d industrially, that is, that this small division of the essential material makes it possible for it to be more readily mixed and dissolved in whatever it is planned to use it, and that the time of mixing and assimilating is very much shortened.

No emulsion of the essential principles of hops has heretofore been made, so far as I am able to find.

I have made many experiments and attempts to emulsify hops, and was unable to make a satisfactory emulsion until the present process was developed by me. The difficulty in making an emulsion of hops is probably due to the fact that it has been extremely difficult to effect a satisfactory division of the resins chiefly found in the lupulin of the hops. In my experiments, I have tried combining them with purified mineral oils, which are a very common component of emulsions. I have tried many vegetable oils such as cotton seed oil, soy bean oil, corn oil, flax seed oil, sesame oil, etc. I have also tried animal fats and oils such as butter, lard, fish oil, etc.

The process I have designed is entirely new, and seems to work perfectly. Emulsions made by this process have been kept for weeks and months, and I find no separation by precipitation or otherwise into their component parts. The process I have designed for making this emulsion is as follows:

I take one part or :portion of any hops extract or concentrate, made by any suitable process, but preferably by the process herein described, in which my first procedure is to suitably prepare the hops by pulverizing them to a degree of fineness by which they will pass a 20 mesh screen or sieve. This may be done in any one of several types of mills which can be adapted for the Work. The mill should be enclosed in such a way that no air currents are present in which the aroma of the hops can be dispersed From the mill the prepared or pulverized hops should be conveyed to a closed tank or receptacle where a suitable solvent is applied. The solvent which I have found most “efficient is acetone, although it may be not-ed that the essential principles of hops, namely, hop oil, lupulin, tannin, and hop seed oil are partly soluble in either petrolic ether, alcohol, methanol, high grade gasoline, ethyl acetate, etc., and in certain hot fatty oils.

I then mix with the powdered hops a highly efficient solvent, acetone. The amount of acetone applied will depend somewhat on the amount of moisture in the dried hops, and also on their age, which affects the percentage of gamma or hardened resins they contain. In general, however, it will be found that one pound of acetone should be applied to one pound of pulverized hops. This application of solvent should be made in a closed container, as the solvent is volatile and in an open container evaporates rapidly, carrying off by evaporation a small fraction of the desirable hops aroma.

The length of time which the pulverized hops should be submitted to: the action of the acetone in the closed container will depend upon the a e of the hops and the extent to which the resins in the lupulin have hardened. If the hops are fresh and have been dehydrated at low temperatures the percentage of hardened or gamma resins will be less than those in hops which were subjected to a higher degree of heat in dehydrating, and particularly those of older growth and those which have been stored in uncooled warehouses. For fresh hops, dehydrated at low temperatures and kept in cooled storerooms, an hour will be sufficient time for the action of the solvent to soften and make soluble the lupulin. For hops of older growth and those which were subjected to greater heat in drying and storing, the period of time which they would be subjected to the action of the solvent might be extended to twenty-four hours, or even longer.

After the hops have been submitted to the action of the acetone for the required period of time, they should be moved in a closed conveyor to a percolator, also closed, for the extraction of a considerable portion of the solvent and extract. This process of percolation can be expedited by the use of a vacuum pump, if desired.

When old hops are used in which the lupulin has hardened and particularly those in which a rancid odor has occurred from the oxidation of hop oil, I employ activated carbon, which may be made from the vegetable fibrous material of the hops residue after extraction has been made by percolation and pressure. This activated carbon may be used in two ways;

(a) By mixing it in finely powdered form with the pulverized hops while they are in a dry state. When this method is employed one-fourth ounce of activated carbon will be used to each pound of pulverized hops. The prepared hops should be stirred and shaken until the activated carbon has been thoroughly mixed with them, then be permitted to stand in a closed container for a period of time not less than two hours. The activated carbon absorbs the excess oxygen of oxidized material which has produced the rancidity and thus restores the odor of fresh hops.

(1)) Or, the activated carbon may be applied to the liquid extract, in which one-fourth ounce of activated carbon is used to each pound of the extract; permitting it to slowly settle; and after a period of from two to four hours the carbon may be removed from the extract by filtration will not contain as large a percentage or fraction of the resinous lupulin as it will carry. The extract obtained by this percolation may then be reemployed on another similar portion of pulverized hops, and the process repeated until the extract has reached the point of saturation, which will be indicated by its specific gravity as well as by the degree of its liquidity.

After the pulverized hops have been submitted in this way’ to the action of the acetone in the tank and in the percolators, the hops are then conveyed in a closed container to a press, preferably’ of the hydraulic type to avoid heat, in which sufficient pressure is applied to express from the hops residue all of the extract obtainable, after which the residue of hops will be found upon inspection or analysis to contain nothing but vegetable fibrous materials and no tannin, oils, or lupulin. This shows that all of the essential principles of the hops have been entirely extracted.

The liquid extract obtained from these several percolations and from the pressing of the hops is then put into an evaporating pan or preferably a jacketed vacuum still, and a degree of heat (60 C.) is applied sufficient only to evaporate all the acetone.

After finding by analysis the amount of tannin and lupulin which the extract contains, I carefully measure, weigh, observe its degree of liquidity, and by an observation of its specific gravity, etc., and by applying the same tests to subsequent lots manufactured, I secure uniformity by the addition of an amount of alcohol, glyceryl laurate, and tannin sufficient to secure such uniformity. The amount of glyceryl laurate used will vary but in any event would not be more than one ounce to each pound of emulsion produced. The function of the addition of this glyceryl laurate is two fold; first, to continue the resinous material in a soft solvent condition, and to make it soluble in the hop wort; second, it assists in the emulsification of the resinous material.

To the hops extract obtained as above described, or in any other suitable manner, I add an equal amount of malt syrup, preferably made from barley malt. The mixture is put into a hoinogenizer, or into what is known as a colloidal machine, which is commonly employed in making other emulsions, and in which the mixture is beaten until the small particles of resinous lupulin contained in the hops extract are finely divided.- No emulsifying agent such as gum tragacanth or other gums usually employed in the making of emulsions is used in this process. The result is a very perfect emulsion which will retain its form without separation indefinitely.

Due to the fact that by my process of making the hops extract I have made available and retained all of the hop seed oil found in the seeds in the hops blossoms, I assume that this oil has a beneficial effect in the making of this emulsion. To some extent, it produces the same effect as the oils used in the making of other emulsions. Among the advantages in the use of this emulsion in the place of bulk hops in brewing are the following:

First, by effecting a much finer division of the resinous lupulin, the resins which give a bitter flavor to all beer and ale are much more quickly dissolved in and assimilated by the hot water used in brewing.

Second, a better distribution. of the lupulin in the beer is obtained than by the use of boiling bulk hops in the wort.

Third, its use in this finely divided form greatly shortens the time required to hop the beer by the methods now employed.

Fourth, this emulsion has the same advantages as follows the use of hop extract in the creation and maintenance of foam on the beer when it is served. This is produced by the small fraction of hop seed oil found in the extract.

Fifth, another advantage is that due to the finer subdivision of the flavoring principles, the emulsion is more quickly and evenly dispersed in the wort or unfinished beer and the time required for cooking the bulk hops in the beer therefore, the time of making each brew is considerably shortened. To illustrate: Most brewers cook the hops in the wort for from one to two hours after the cooking of the grain has been completed. In brewing tests which we have made, we secure the same result by stopping the brewing or cooking as soon as we have introduced the emulsion.

of brewing is con- In further explanation, We have found that four ounces of emulsion containing only about one ounce of hop extract will flavor as much beer as four ounces of extract or as one pound of bulk hops. This can only be explained by the fact that in emulsifying the resinous lupulin contents of the hops or hops extract, we subdivide each particle of these flavoring constituents into many thousands of finer particles. That is the principal reason for putting it into the form of an emulsion rather than in the form of an extract. It greatly increases the flavoring power or ability as compared with the extract or bulk hops from which it is made.

The method or process above described for the making of hops emulsion is entirely a cold one. The advantage of a cold process over the prior art is that it retains all of the aromatic principles of the hops, which are easily volatilized and driven off by the application of heat.

The only stage of the process in which any heat is used is to vaporize the acetone, and only a slight degree of heat-not over 60 degrees C.- is required for that purpose.

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Patent No. 3193395A: Concentration Of Beer By Crystallization

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Today in 1965, US Patent 3193395 A was issued, an invention of Merritt V DeLano Jr. and Donald C. Tabler, assigned to the Phillips Petroleum Co., for their “Concentration of Beer by Crystallization.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this summary:

It is common to concentrate aqueous solutions by evaporation of water for the sake of economy in storage and shipping and to preserve the product. Removal of water by evaporation from a food product and particularly from a beverage results in the removal of essential components which affect the freshness and flavor of the beverage so that it cannot be restored to its original quality merely by the addition of water. This disadvantage can be overcome in the concentration of beverages by using a crystallization process whereby the water is separated from non-aqueous components by freezing. It is known that when water freezes the ice is in a pure form so that water can be removed from aqueous solutions by this method without the loss of volatile materials essential to the quality thereof.

There is considerable interest in the concentration of beer by freezing. The beer as received from the fermenters can be concentrated to approximately 1A its original volume by freezing out much of the water present therein. If the beer is shipped in the concentrated form, considerable savings can be realized in freight. Also, the storage facilities for the beer concentrate can be reduced and it has been found that beer in the concentrated form can be stored for substantially longer periods of time without deterioration of avor. Even if the beer is immediately reconstituted, there is substantial advantage to the concentration process in employing the crystallization method since the cold beer concentrate can be filtered to produce in effect an accelerated lagering process. This greatly reduces the requirements for large inventories and refrigerated storage tanks now necessary in breweries.

In the above-mentioned patent to Thomas, 2,854,494, there is disclosed a process and apparatus for purifying crystals which involves moving a mixture of crystals and mother liquor through a purification column in which the crystals are passed in a compact mass into a body of crystal melt which is displaced back into the crystal mass. The purification column includes an upstream liquid removal zone, a middle reflux zone, and a downstream melting zone. Mother liquor is removed from the crystals in the liquid removal zone and the ice crystals are melted in the melting zone. A portion of the crystal melt is Withdrawn from the melting zone and the remainder is forced back into the crystal mass in the reflux zone.

This apparatus can be used very effectively in the freeze concentration of beer. The beer is cooled to form a slurry of ice crystal in a mother liquor which is a beer concentrate and the resulting slurry is passed into the crystal purification column. Substantially pure water water which is the crystal melt can be removed from the melting zone and the beer concentrate is removed from the liquid removal zone of the purification column. We have found, however, that in the application of this purification method to beer, considerable difficulty is encountered as a result of carbon dioxide evolving from the mother liquor in the purification column. This evolvement of carbon dioxide causes channeling within the 3,193,395 Patented July 6, 1965 crystal mass with resultant loss of efficiency of the purification column. It becomes apparent, therefore, that the removal of carbon dioxide from the beer prior to its introduction into the crystal purification column should provide a solution to this problem. It can be appreciated, however, that with the removal of carbon dioxide from the beer prior to concentration there is also a substantial danger of removing alcohol and some of the essential flavor components which the crystal concentration method is used to preserve.

According to our invention, beer is concentrated by the crystallization method employing a purification column as described and the problem of channeling within the purification column as a result of evolvement of carbon dioxide is overcome by the prior removal of carbon dioxide without any substantial removal of the essential components from the beer itself. Since carbon dioxide is always added to beer in a carbonation step prior to packaging, this prior removal of carbon dioxide from the beer before concentration does not pose any particular problem or introduce an additional step in the over-all process of treating the beer concentrate on reconstitution. According to our invention, an antifoam agent is first added to the beer as it comes from the fermenters. The beer is then cooled in order to freeze a substantial amount of the water present therein and form a relatively thick slurry. This slurry is then subjected to a vacuum and the slurry is agitated with the result that carbon dioxide is removed from the remaining liquid. The solids content of the slurry can then be adjusted if necessary for the concentration process and the slurry is passed into the purification column where the ice and mother liquor are separated as described above. In a preferred aspect of the invention, in the carbon dioxide removal step the beer is cooled so that the slurry has a high solids content and subsequently the slurry is warmed slightly and thereby thinned so that trapped bubbles of carbon dioxide are released. The slurry is then recooled to the proper solids content for passage to the purification column. By lowering the temperature of the beer in order to remove carbon dioxide so that a substantial amount of water is frozen, the solubility of the carbon dioxide in the overall slurry is reduced even though the reduced temperature permits higher solubility in the remaining liquid. Reducing the pressure permits substantially all of the carbon dioxide to be removed from the slurry and since the alcohol has a very low vapor pressure at the low temperatures employed, very little of this material is vaporized with the carbon dioxide. We have also found that the addition of the antifoam agent to the beer prior to cooling to form a slurry enables substantially complete removal of the carbon dioxide from the slurry whereas complete removal is not attained without this antifoam agent, apparently because of the formation of extremely fine bubbles of the gas within the crystal mass.

It is an object of our invention to provide an improved method of concentrating beer by crystallization. Another object is to provide a method of concentrating beer by using a crystal purification column. Still another object of our invention is to provide a method of removing carbon dioxide from beer prior to concentration of the crystal slurry of the beer in the purification column without removing substantial amounts of alcohol. Still another object is to provide a method of improving the efficiency of a crystal purification column in the concentration of beer by substantially complete removal of the carbon dioxide present in the beer prior to passage of the crystal slurry through the purification column.

US3193395-0

Patent No. 280385A: Apparatus For And Process Of Cooling And Condensing The Foam Which Forms On The Surface Of Fermenting Liquor

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Today in 1883, US Patent 280385 A was issued, an invention of Clement A. Maus, for his “Apparatus For and Process of Cooling and Condensing the Foam Which Forms on the Surface of Fermenting Liquor.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this summary:

My invention relates to an apparatus for cooling and condensing the foam of fermenting liquors, wort, beer, ale, &c, in which a condensing-chamber operates in conjunction with suitable pipes, a current of cooled and purified air from an ice-reservoir, and a vessel containing the fermenting liquid; and the objects of my invention are, first, to provide a means for condensing the foam that is forming on the surface of fermenting wort, beer, ale, &c., by blowing on or beating it with a current of cooled air, thus converting the foam into a liquid state again and permitting it to run back into the fermenting body of liquid; second, to provide facilities for counteracting the volatilization of the flavor and fine hop aroma of the wort, beer, ale, &c., while undergoing several stages of fermentation; third, to provide a means for preventing the escape of the volatile portion of the hop aroma and flavor of the fermenting wort, beer, ale, 850., during the first and last stages of the fermenting body. These objects I accomplish by the mechanism illustrated by the accompanying drawing, in which the entire apparatus is illustrated by a single figure, which is partially in section to show the construction and arrangement of certain parts more fully.

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