Patent No. 589065A: Method Of And Apparatus For Treating Beer

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Today in 1897, US Patent 589065 A was issued, an invention of Otto Zwietusch, for his “Method Of And Apparatus For Treating Beer.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this summary:

My invention relates to the treatment and finishing of beer and other malt liquids, and especially the impregnation thereof with carbonic-acid gas; and it consists in a new and useful method or art of accomplishing these results, as well as in the novel and useful apparatus therefor, all as will be fully set forth hereinafter and subsequently claimed.

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Patent No. 4767640A: Light Stable Hop Extracts And Method Of Preparation

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Today in 1988, US Patent 4767640 A was issued, an invention of Henry Goldstein, Patrick L. Ting, Etzer Chicove, Gary Goetzke, and John M. Cowles, assigned to Miller Brewing Company, for their “Light Stable Hop Extracts and Method of Preparation.” Here’s the Abstract:

A method of preparing anactinic hop extracts comprising three stages: pre-purification of a liquid CO2 hop extract using liquid-liquid extraction to isolate pure humulones or alpha acids; isomerization/reduction of the humulones to obtain a mixture consisting of reduced isohumulones and non-isohumulone light unstable products (NILUPS); then adding alkali and water to the mixture of reduced isohumulones and NILUPS, heating and stirring to extract the reduced isohumulones into an aqueous phase and to leave the NILUPS in an oil phase. The aqueous phase is an anactinic hop extract which can be used to prepare light stable malt beverages.

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This is one of a multitude of patents that Miller received in order to maintain their image, using a clear bottle for Miller High Life. It seems like it would have been far less expensive to just re-brand the beer with a brown bottle, but I guess that’s why I’m not in marketing.
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Patent No. 8250968B2: Wort Copper With An External Boiler

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Today in 2012, US Patent 8250968 B2 was issued, an invention of Dietmar Lohner, Christian Wetzl and Robert Gruber, assigned to Krones Ag, for their “Wort Copper with an External Boiler.” Here’s the Abstract:

A wort copper and a method of boiling wort, with the wort copper having an external boiler arranged outside of the wort copper, which cyclically heats wort from the wort copper, wherein the heated wort is re-supplied to the wort copper, and comprises an infeed tube and a rising pipe, through which wort heated by the external boiler rises upwards in the wort copper, as well as at least one intake opening is provided in the rising line for sucking in wort from a wort reservoir of the wort copper, wherein the cross-sectional surface of the rising pipe enlarges at least section-wise towards the upper end of the rising pipe.

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Patent No. 409956A: Malting And Germinating Apparatus

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Today in 1889, US Patent 409956 A was issued, an invention of Joseph P. Gent, for his “Malting And Germinating Apparatus.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this summary:

My invention relates to apparatus for the continuous malt-ing or germinating of grain; and it consists in certain improvements in construction and combination of parts, hereinafter fully described.

What I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is

1. An apparatus for malting or germinating grain, consisting of an outer casing, a series of perforated floors one above the other, provided with automatically dumping sections, said floors having each a central aperture, an air-supplying pipe extending through said apertures and provided with apertures to discharge air beneath each of said floors, a shaft for rotating said floors, also extending through said openings, and a water pipe extending Within said openings and provided with a discharge above each floor, substantially as described.

2. An apparatus for malting or germinating grain, consisting of perforated floors one above the other, having central apertures in each, a shaft for revolving said floors extending vertically through said apertures, and a water-supply pipe extending also vertically through said apertures and having a spraying-discharge above each floor, the said floors having pivoted automatically-dumping sections, the dumping-point of each floor being a short distance in advance of the dumping point of the floor above, substantially as described.

3. An apparatus for malting or germinating grain, consisting of an inclosing-casing, revolving perforated floors one above the other, an air-pipe extending centrally through said floors and having a discharge-opening beneath each floor, an air-forcing and air moistening device communicating with said pipe, a water-supply pipe extending within said air-pipe and provided with a spraying discharge above each floor, and stirring and leveling devices above each floor, the said floors being provided with pivoted automatically dumping sections, the dumping-point of each floor being slightly in advance of the floor above, substantially as described.

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Patent No. 3525625A: Fermentation Of Wort

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Today in 1970, US Patent 3525625 A was issued, an invention of Robert A. Groulx and Orland O. Schaus, assigned to Canadian Breweries Ltd., for their “Fermentation of Wort.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this summary:

This invention relates to the fermentation of wort in the making of a potable alcoholic brewery beverage such as ale.

Various types of yeast are used in the making of alcoholic brewery beverages wherein a yeast fermentable substrate known as brewers wort is fermented by the action of a yeast to give a potable beverage. The general process is very well known and description of the complete process is not included herein. Some yeasts are heavy and tend to sink to the bottom of the wort substrate. Others are light and tend to rise to the top of the. substrate. These latter yeasts are called top fermenting yeasts and are commonly used in the manufacture of a type of alcoholic brewery beverage generally known as ale. This invention is concerned with the control of the size of the yeast cap.

Top fermenting yeasts tend to gather in a foam on the top of the fermenting Wort is the fermentation process takes place in what is known in the brewing trade as a yeast cap. This cap often becomes quite deep and represents a substantial quantity of yeast that is not in active contact with the wort. It thus represents an inefficiency in the use of yeast in the process. In many cases, the cap becomes so large that the fermenting vessel overflows with a resulting loss of yeast content and admixed fermenting substrate. This latter condition is known as purging and is wasteful and undesirable. Purging is quite likely to be encountered Where one attempts to use modern accelerated fermentation techniques which involve higher yeast concentrations, elevated temperatures, and agitation of the wort with a view to keeping the yeast in eflicient contact therewith, not only with top fermenting yeasts but also with bottom fermenting yeasts where purging is encountered. While it is, of course, possible to avoid the occurrence of purging by running the fermenting vessel with a lower volume of Wort to provide a greater free board area above the wort surface, this reduces the capacity of a fermenter. From this point of view, it is costly.

It is, therefore, an object of this invention to improve the efficiency of the fermentation process by achieving a more efficient contact of the yeast with the wort.

It is a further object of the invention to control the occurrence of purging in a fermentation process.

It is a still further object of the invention to increase the capacity at which a fermenter may be operated by maintaining the yeast cap at a small dimension.

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Patent No. 7781000B2: Method For Boiling Wort

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Today in 2010, US Patent 7781000 B2 was issued, an invention of Kurt Stippler and Klaus-Karl Wasmuht, assigned to Krones Ag, for their “Method For Boiling Wort.” Here’s the Abstract:

A method for boiling wort used in the production of beer the wort is boiled in a wort copper in which an inner boiler comprising a superimposed thin-film distributor is disposed. After boiling and after removal of the sludge in a whirlpool, the wort is again placed on the thin-film distributor for evaporation so that the wort copper simultaneously works as an evaporator.

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Patent No. 2127759A: Method Of And Apparatus For Producing Wort

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Today in 1938, US Patent 2127759 A was issued, an invention of John F. Silhavy, for his “Method of and Apparatus for Producing Wort and the Like.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this summary:

This invention relates to a method of and apparatus for the production or wort or similar liquid mixtures.

The object of my invention is to overcome the objections and defects of the batch processes now in use. I have invented a continuous process for, the production of cooled wort. My invention includes the steps of mixing the necessary cereals with water at the proper temperature while continuously progressing the mixture through a mixing section, then mixing and heating at a higher temperature in another section while advancing the material continuously, and then heating it to a higher temperature and moving it along continuously in another section. After this mashing treatment the cereals are continuously removed by filtration with a suction filter or similar device. The cereals on-the suction cylinder are sparged with hot water to wash out desirable water soluble constituents. The liquid (filtrate) is then conducted to a ‘section where hops are added. The mixture is stirred or agitated and advanced through a heated section. This agitating may be obtained merely by a vigorous boiling. The mixture with the hops is pre-cooled and then filtered by passing it over a continuous suction filter or the like and the hops on the suction roll sprayed or sparged. In another form of my invention, I filter the hops from the liquid without pre=cooling and pass this hot liquid through the jackets of the mash mixers or mixing sections to heat the liquid in the mixers. The liquid is then passed through a final cooler and from here the wort is run into the fermenters. As each fermenter is filled, yeast may be added. In the more detailed description hereinafter given, I will describe the various steps and also improvements of the steps.

Instead of using separate mixing sections or mash mixers, in some instances I prefer to combine the first two mash mixers in one unit. Or I may combine the last two mash mixers in one unit or I may combine all three mash mixers in one large unit and still maintain the desired temperatures in the sections within allowable limits. I have found that by adding carbon dioxide gas or carbonic acid gas to the mash, the diastatic action of the malt as well as the peptonization of the albuminoids is increased.

By using my continuous process there is a saving of time because it is not necessary to wait for large bodies of liquid to be heated. Also there is ease of control due to processing a relatively small quantity of’material continuously rather than a much larger quantity in the batch manner. The method is flexible to meet the requirements of individual operators. The resulting wort is more uniform on account of the continuity of the process. There is also a larger output per unit of floor space since all apparatus is in continuous use in contrast to present practice, where the greater part of the equipment is idle and only a small portion of the equipment is in operation at one time. Due to the improved mixing and to the more thorough washing or sparging of the spent cereals and grains, a better yield from a given weight of cereals is obtained. A large economy is effected by utilizing the boiled wort as a heating medium in the earlier stages of the process. This is made possible by the continuity-of the process. Since my continuous process requires only a relatively small amount of water for washing out adhering wort from the grains on the filter, it is possible to work with a much thinner mixture in the mash mixers than is done at present in the mash tun. By using a more liquid or thinner mixture a much better extraction yield on the grains is obtained. Also with a thinner mash, the rate of diastatic activity is higher than I with a thicker mash. A more uniform product at a lower cost is obtained as a result of using my invention. One feature of my invention is the continuity of the process. Another feature of my invention is the arrangement of the apparatus. Still another feature of my invention is the continuous filter means provided. Still another feature is the economizing in heat which is provided for by the arrangement of the apparatus. Other features and objects will be in part obvious and are in part above pointed out and will be pointed out hereinafter. Various changes may be made in practice within the scope of my invention without digressing from the spirit of my invention.

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Patent No. 263087A: Process Of Making Whisky (From Spent Beer)

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Today in 1882, US Patent 2356545 A was issued, an invention of Marshall J. Allen, for his “Process of Making Whisky (from Spent Beer).” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes this summary:

The object of our invention is to increase the yield of whisky from a given amount of grain by utilizing in subsequent processes the refuse products of previous processes, and this we do by first preparing the refuse product and bringing it into a condition in which it may be advantageously used; and, secondly, by introducing such prepared product into the subsequent processes of whisky-making.

In all those methods of making whisky in which the entire grain introduced passes through the entire process and is delivered as a refuse product at the end of the operation The sheet of drawings hereto annexed rep resents a general View of a part of a distillery arranged for the practice of our improved process. We do not limit ourselves, however, to the special apparatus for carrying out the process, but show one form of apparatus by which it may be carried into effect. We shall not go into detail in the description of this apparatus, as the arrangement will be easily understood by those acquainted with the art.

By “preparing the refuse product,” he means what they call “spent beer,” which I further assume he means “spent grain,” though to be fair I’m not quite sure. A little later in the description, they explain it somewhat better:

In the drawing, A represents the mash-tubs B, the mill-hoppers; C, the millstones; D, the beer-still; E, low-wines receiver; F, doubler still; G, beer heater and charger; H, low-wines charger for doubling still; I, doubling still, condenser, and flake-stand; J, beer-still; K, fermenting-vats; L, whisky-receiver; M, hot-slop or spent-beer receiver; N, hot-slop connection with our improved process.

It is well known that the spent beer contains in suspension, in the first place, a considerable amount of refuse material of comparative large size such as the chaff, bran, and larger particles of grain and, in the second place, minute particles of sugar or glucose, starch, and yeast. This second class of parti- 7o cles it is very important to preserve and introduceinto the subsequent operations of whisky-making. This second class of particles are so minute as that they will pass through the meshes of a fine sieve, and yet are sufticiently solid and separate from the liquid to form a deposit in any vessel in which the liquid may remain at rest. The purpose of our invention is to retain these fine or valuable particles in the liquid which is to be returned, and to separate from this liquid the coarse or refuse particles, while at the same time the liquid is maintained in a sweet condition.

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Patent No. 20140234480A1: Enhancement Of Beer Flavor By A Combination Of Pichia Yeast And Different Hop Varieties

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Today in 2014, US Patent 20140234480 A1 was issued, an invention of Sofie Sarens and Jan Hendrik Swiegers, assigned to Chr. Hansen A/S, for their “Enhancement of Beer Flavor by a Combination of Pichia Yeast And Different Hop Varieties.” Here’s the Abstract:

In the beer fermentation process, Pichia spp. yeast strains can be combined with normal beer yeast strains and with different hop varieties to produce synergistic effects, including the increased production in the fermentation product of esters, e.g., increased levels of isoamyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, ethyl propionate, ethyl valerate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl octanoate. Additionally, the Pichia spp. strain interacts differently with different hop varieties, such that the flavor profile of beer can be tuned by employing different combinations of Pichia spp. strains and hops.

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Patent No. 7258887B2: Preparation Of Light Stable Hops

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Today in 2007, US Patent 7258887 B2 was issued, an invention of Patrick L. Ting, Henry Goldstein, Aki A. Murakami, Michael VanSanford, Jay R. Refling, John R. Seabrooks, and David S. Ryder, assigned to Miller Brewing Company, for their “Preparation of Light Stable Hops.” Here’s the Abstract:

Disclosed are methods for the production of light stable hops, useful for the brewing of beer or ale to be stored in clear or green glass containers, which beer or ale will not develop objectionable flavor as a result of exposure to light. Light stable hops are prepared by double extraction of liquid/supercritical CO2 extracted hop solids with ethanol to remove alpha/iso-alpha-acids. Such alpha/iso-alpha-acids may be further removed from the ethanol extraction liquor obtained in the double extraction process by subjecting such liquor to an ion exchange medium, or precipitation by a metal ion, heavy metal ion, or alkali metal ion, to provide an alpha/iso-alpha-acid is free extraction liquor which may be added to the light stable hops residue obtained in the initial double extraction process.

Wanting to continue using their distinctive clear bottle for Miller High Life, at least since 1962, Miller started coming with preparations to make certain hops less subject to becoming lightstruck. In 1962, they patented a Anactinic malt product and hop extract therefor and since then at least eight newer patents improves aspects of the same idea.
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