Patent No. 3923897A: Production Of Hoplike Beverage Bittering Materials

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Today in 1975, US Patent 3923897 A was issued, an invention of Leonard R. Worden, assigned to the Kalamazoo Spice Extract Co., for his “Production of Hoplike Beverage Bittering Materials.” If the Kalamazoo Spice Extract Co. sounds familiar, that’s where Firestone Walker brewmaster Matt Brynildson worked as in intern in college and then as his first job afterwards, as a hop chemist. Here’s the Abstract:

Production of hoplike beverage bittering materials by the peracid oxidation of 3′,5′-dialkyl-2′,4′,6′-trihydroxyacylphenones to 6-acyl-2,4-dialkyl-2-hydroxycyclohexane-1,3,5-triones (tetrahydrohumulones or tetrahydro-alpha acids) and isomerization thereof to 2,4-diacyl-5-alkyl-4-hydroxycyclopentane-1,3-diones (tetrahydroisohumulones or tetrahydroiso-alpha acids).

hop-flowers

Patent No. WO2007113292A3: Mashing Process

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Today in 2007, US Patent WO 2007113292 A3 was issued, an invention of Niels Elvig, for his “Mashing Process.” Here’s the Abstract:

The present invention provides processes for production of wort and beer from a granular starch adjunct grist mashed-in at a temperature below the gelatinization temperature of said starch.

Mash

Patent No. 268186A: Measuring Vessel

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Today in 1882, US Patent 268186 A was issued, an invention of George J. Gave, for his “Measuring Vessel.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates to that class of measuring-vessels designed to automatically indicate from the outside the quantity of beer or other fermenting liquor as it is poured into said measuring vessels, the object being to save labor and material in the construction and render the vessels less liable to get out of repair.

US268186-0

Patent No. WO1999060090A1: Premix Composition For Clarifying Beer

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Today in 1999, US Patent WO 1999060090 A1 was issued, an invention of Mustafa Rehmanji, Andrew Mola, Robert Ianniello, Kolazi S. Narayanan, and Tom Cheng, assigned to Isp Investments Inc., for their “Premix Composition For Clarifying Beer.” Here’s the Abstract:

A premix composition for clarifying beverages like beer includes, by weight, (a) about 40 to 90 %, preferably 60-85 %, of silica xerogel having less than 10 % water therein, preferably 5 % or less, and a particle size, as defined by its mean volume average diameter MV, in both the dry state and as a 10 % aqueous slurry, of less than 50 ν, preferably about 5-30 ν, and (b) about 10 to 60 %, preferably 15-40 %, of crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone having a particle size as defined, in the dry state, of about 10 to 50 ν, and about 30-60 ν in a 10 % aqueous slurry, and a process of obtaining, chill-haze stabilized beer with substantial reduction in high molecular weight proteins, as well as polyphenols, flavanoids and tannins, in an efficient and effective single-step process at a rapid filter-flow rate, with undetectable residual soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone thereafter, and no microbiological growth in the premix, effective haze stability after time, and advantageous redispersibility of the premix used in the process.

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Patent No. 775780A: Art Of Brewing

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Today in 1904, US Patent 775780 A was issued, an invention of Joseph Schneible, for his “Art Of Brewing.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims:

This invention relates particularly to the preparation of beer-wort, and has for its object to make-it possible to produce with certainty a wort of definite character, with reference particularly to the relationship between sugar and non-sugar, maltodextrins and dextrin, etc.

According to the methods of brewing now practiced the production of a wort of a definite or the best character in so far as it is dependent upon the relative amounts present in it of the different starch derivatives is practically impossible. This is largely due to the fact that the malt mash is subjected for a time long enough to permit conversion of the starch to take place to varying temperatures without so controlling the temperatures as to obtain the different starch derivatives in the desired proportions. This variation of temperature necessarily results from delivering, as is the customary practice, the cooked unmalted cereal mash or other heating medium,”such as hot water, which in some systems of brewing is used to raise the temperature of the malt mash, at substantially the boiling temperature to the mash-tub, which already contains the peptonized malt mash, which is at a temperature much below the boiling-point. The stream of boiling-hot cooked mash raises the temperature of the adjacent portions of the malt mash to a heat approximating its own temperature,which unduly elevated temperature continues long enough for conversion of the starch obviously where the hot cereal to begin. mash or other heating medium is thus introduced into the malt mash it is not only impossible to regulate the temperature to which portions of the malt mash are thus raised, but it is also impossible to regulate the quantity of the malt mash which has its temperature thus unduly raised, and the degree and extent Serial No. 186,592. (No specimens) of conversion or saccharification is therefore impossible of regulation under such methods.

According to the present invention the temperature of the peptonized malt mash is raised to the proper converting degree by the heat of the cooked unmalted cereal mash or other heating medium; but the attainment of the desired temperature .,is effected in so short a space of time that no reaction at other temperatures will take place, the contact of the malt mash at the peptonizing temperature with the substantially boiling hot cooked mash or other heating medium being only momentary, or rather the thorough mixture of the two being so quickly effected that no undesired reaction takes place. The contact or mingling of the malt mash and cooked mash or other heating medium preferably takes place as the two mashes or the malt mash and heating medium are moving on together in a comparatively small stream, and no portion of the malt mash remains in contact for any appreciable length of time with the cooked mash or other heating medium while the latter is at boiling temperature. In other words, the malt mash is raised to the desired converting temperature without subjecting the malt mash to reaction at any temperature other than that which is predetermined.

It will be obvious that the invention can be practiced in different ways and with different forms of apparatus, the most convenient and practicable mode of practicing the invention being to thoroughly mingle the malt mash and the hot cooked mash or other heating medium while in movement from the respective tanks or sources of supply tothe common mash-tub or strainer-tub, so that the desired converting temperature is attained at once in the commingled mashes or commingled malt mash and heating medium. After being so mingled the combined liquor is allowed to stand for the usual period of time required for conversion.

US775780-0

Patent Nos. 805305A & 805306A: Air Filter

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Today in 1905, both US Patent 805305 A and US Patent 805306 A were issued, and both are related inventions of Albert Lieber, under the same name: “Air Filter.” There’s no Abstract, although in the description it includes these claims for the first one:

The object of this invention is to provide an improved construction of air-filter for filtering compressed air and removing from it impurities as well as chemically treating it during its passage through the filter.

The use to which I. have put this filter is for pitching the interior of beer-kegs and the like for blowing and spreading the warm pitch upon the internal surface of a keg by compressed air passing through this filter. In such case the bacteria and germs in the air will be embedded in the pitch and thus affect the beer, impairing its preserving qualities as well as its taste. It is therefore found very important by me that the compressed air used for the purpose mentioned be rendered chemically pure by passing the air through medicated cotton, thus arresting the particles of dust, microbes, germs, and the like. Beer-kegs treated in this way can be used immediately after being pitched and after prior use without the necessity of treating the kegs as heretofore.

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And here’s a description of the claims for the second patent:

The chief feature of this invention consists of means for compressing the cotton or filtering material to the degree best suited for the chemical through which the air passed through the device is being treated.

The purpose of the invention, therefore, is to more thoroughly arrest the bacteria and germs of the air in the filter before the same passes through the filter. I have used it for pitching the interior of beer-kegs, the air being passed through the filter and compressed for blowing and spreading warm pitch upon the internal surface of the keg. This device prevents the bacteria and germs from the air entering the pitch.

US805306-0

Patent No. 3773222A: Beer Yeast Dosing Installation

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Today in 1973, US Patent 3773222 A was issued, an invention of Erich Fiebinger, assigned to Draft Systems, Inc., for his beer yeast “Dosing Installation.” Here’s the Abstract:

A dosing system for continuously dosing and dispensing the respective quantities of auxiliary filtering substances to be added in connection with a settling filtration to a cloudy liquid, especially beer, for the cooling and yeast sediments, according to which for dispensing an auxiliary filtering substance for the cooling sediments as well as an auxiliary filtering for the yeast sediment there is provided one dosing device each equipped with a flow meter while both devices which are directly connected to the cloudy liquid conveying conduit are preceded by a flow meter and a device for measuring the total cloudiness of the liquid and by a measuring device provided with a heating zone for measuring the yeast sediment in the cloudy liquid conveying conduit. The dosing installation includes a control device for controlling the dosing devices in conformity with the cloudiness measured by the respective devices.

US3773222-1

Patent No. WO2007130736A1: Improvements To The Bittering Of Beer

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Today in 1989, US Patent WO 2007130736 A1 was issued, an invention of Richard J. H. Wilson and Robert J. Smith, assigned to S.S. Steiner, Inc., for their “Improvements to the Bittering of Beer.” Here’s the Abstract:

Iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in their free acids states are converted into mobile resins by the addition of concentrated solutions of alkali metal hydroxides. A food compatible viscosity reducer is added to reduce viscosity and also discourage phase separation during storage. The products may be used in brewing for the bittering of beer and are most effectively used in an apparatus that automatically blends the product with water and injects the resultant, aqueous solution into beer.

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Patent No. 4880643A: Beer And Other Beverages And Their Manufacture

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Today in 1989, US Patent 4880643 A was issued, an invention of Charles W. Bamforth and Roy Cope, assigned to Bass Public Limited Company, for his “Beer and Other Beverages and Their Manufacture.” Here’s the Abstract:

Proteinaceous material is added to beer or other beverages. In beer and those other beverages on which a head can be formed it helps to improve the head, while in beverages not normally forming a head it can enable a head to be formed. Proteins extracted from albumen may be employed or whole albumen may be used. To avoid any tendency to haze-formation, particularly on pasteurization, protein fragments may be used. These can be formed by hydrolyzing proteins such as albumen proteins. An alternative method is to use alkylated proteins. Alkylated protein fragments are particularly satisfactory. The alkyl radicals may contain from four to twenty carbon atoms, preferred radicals containing six carbon atoms.

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While the title is somewhat vague, it’s about beer foam. Here’s part of the description:

This invention relates to beer and other beverages and to their manufacture. In particular the invention is concerned with the incorporation into a beverage of an additive enabling the beverage to have a head formed on it or to improve the quality of the head that can be formed on it.

The invention is primarily applicable to beer, and the term beer is used herein to designate generally any of a variety of alcoholic beverages made by the fermentation of hopped malt wort; it thus includes within its scope ales, lagers and stouts. Beer itself is normally dispensed with a head, but there are also other beer-like beverages that are normally dispensed with a head and to which the invention is also particularly applicable, these including beverages which include little or no alcohol but otherwise resemble beer quite closely.

In addition to such beer-like beverages the invention may be applied both to other beverages which are customarily dispensed with a head and to beverages which have not hitherto been customarily dispensed with a head. These latter beverages may include wines, `made wines`, fortified wines and spirits. The invention is particularly applicable to carbonated beverages, both alcoholic and non-alcoholic, as the release of gas which tends to occur as the beverage is dispensed encourages a tendency to head-formation.

The foam or head that is normally present on a glass of beer is an important feature of the beer, and it has been found that many consumers, when judging the quality of a beer, consider that for a beer to have a head of good quality is one of the most important factors in that beer’s favour. Much the same is also true of other beverages on which a head is formed. It is considered that a head is of good quality if it has a number of attributes, among which are stability, the ability to form `lacing`, that is a lace-like pattern of bubbles left on the side of the glass after the liquid beer or other beverage has been wholly or largely consumed, and a good appearance, that is a good colour (usually a white colour) and a preponderance of small bubbles of substantially uniform size.

The nature of the head on a glass of beer or other beverage depends principally on two factors, one being the constitution or composition of the beverage itself and the other being the way in which the beverage is dispensed. At least inasfar as its application to beer is concerned, the present invention is primarily concerned with the former of those factors.

From a first aspect the present invention consists in a method of modifying or improving beer or other beverage, which method comprises the step of incorporating in the beverage concerned an additive enabling the beverage to have a head formed on it or to improve the quality of the head that can be formed on it, the additive comprising proteinaceous material.

The amount of additive required to improve the beverage can readily be determined by experiment. The characteristics of the head which tend to be particularly improved by the addition of the additive are the stability of the head, the whiteness of the head and the ability to form lacing. If the proportion of the additive in the beverage is further increased the beverage may become such that a head formed on it becomes excessively stiff, firm and stable.

The proteinaceous material of the additive may comprise at least one protein.

The chemical and physical analysis of beer has shown that certain constituents have a profound effect on the type of head that can be formed on beer, and in particular has shown that the presence of certain types of proteins, particularly those that are hydrophobic and are of a relatively large size, can lead to the formation of an improved head. It would be possible to improve the head-forming properties of beer by extracting suitable proteins from barley or malt and adding them to the ingredients normally used during the manufacture of the beer in order that the resultant beer should contain an increased proportion of the proteins concerned. Such a process of extraction and addition would, however, be relatively complicated and expensive and would therefore be unlikely to be commercially practicable.

It is therefore preferred to use an additive in which the protein or each protein is of a kind not otherwise present in the beverage concerned. The additive preferably comprises albumen, i.e. white of egg. Albumen, of a quality and purity suitable for its incorporation in foodstuffs, is a commercially available product that is relatively inexpensive and can be used, without further treatment, in carrying out the present invention. Nevertheless, commercially available albumen usually if not always contains some materials that are insoluble in water, and it is preferred to extract those before the remaining material, or part of the remaining material, is incorporated in the beverage. The insoluble components can be removed by filtration or by a process in which the albumen is centrifuged.

The additive is preferably formed as an aqueous solution, and that solution may also contain a minor addition of ethyl alcohol.

beer-foam

Patent No. 4622224A: Preparation Of Wort Extracts

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Today in 1986, US Patent 4622224 A was issued, an invention of Joseph L. Owades, for his “Preparation Of Wort Extracts.” This appears to be an earlier patent than his “Preparation Of Wort Extracts” that was patented two years later, in 1988. Joe is most well-known for having invented low-calorie light beer. Here’s the Abstract:

A method for producing a wort containing a reduced level of fermentable sugars is described. The method consists of providing a warm aqueous suspension of ground malt, and adding the warm suspension to a boiling aqueous suspension of cereal adjuncts while avoiding temperatures between about 52° and 72° C. The resulting wort is useful for producing a beer with a lower-than-normal alcohol content, or a malt beverage lacking sweetness usually associated with malt beverages.

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